Abhava Pratinidhi Dravyas by Dr. Swapnali Tulsankar SignUp
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Ayurveda Share This Page
Abhava Pratinidhi Dravyas
by Dr. Swapnali Tulsankar Bookmark and Share
 

Today over three quarters of world population relies on herbal plants and products for health care, as they symbolize safety in contrast to synthetics. In India nearly 9,500 registered herbal industries and a multitude cottage level herbal unit depends upon continuous supply of medicinal plants for manufacturing herbal medical formulation. In fact, the major wild resource of medicinal plant required for herbal Industry is facing shortage due to non-availability of genuine plants due various problems like over-exploitation, deforestation, loss of habitat, extinction of rare plants, indiscriminate harvesting impairing the availability of raw drugs. The demand of medicinal plant is ever increasing but fails to meet supply with authentic drug giving rise to adulteration and irrational substitution affecting efficacy and safety of herbal medicines.

The concept of substitution in Pharmcognosy or herbal science mainly refers it as a part of adulteration which may be deliberate or accidental. Usually this practice includes substitution of original crude drug partially or fully with other substances which is either from or inferior in chemical properties and therapeutics.

Unlike above, in Ayurveda the concept of substitution differs in a way that the substitute drug possesses similar ‘guna’ i.e. the Rasapanchakas (Ayurveda Pharmacology) on the level of attributes with that of the original drug. That means the substitutes seemed to be intentionally selected and utilize rationally to achieve the desired effect. Usage of Pratinidhi is alternate to rare/extinct/difficult to unobtainble original drug. It can overcome the depletion of rare drugs, thus lend a support in conservation and sustainability of medicinal plants and provide a quality herbal formulation with economic feasibility.

Pratinidhi Dravyas are substitute drugs utilize for the drugs which are not available. It mainly deals with rational substitution intentionally selected of crude drugs required for medicinal purpose. This concept is referred from one of the Laghutrayi, Bhavapraksh written in 16th century A.D. As the list of substitute is first of its kind and this Nighantu is considered as latest among classical work in Dravyaguna Shastra.

As the main requirement for an appropriate Pratinidhi Dravya is to possess similar gunas to that of original drug, the Abhava Pratinidhi dravyas were compared on basis of their Rasapanchak i.e. Guna (properties), Rasa (taste), Vipaka (post digestion and metabolism effect), Veerya (potency) along with Karma (actions) and Roghanata (Indications).

Pratinidhi drugs serves to overcome the problem of un-available drugs due to scarcity, rare or difficult to procure. This in a way helps to produce good quality herbal products and lend a support in conservation and sustainability of medicinal plants. With proper revalidation of existing documented examples there is always a scope to find out new substitutes for Abhava Dravyas of todays time.
 
Pratinidhi Dravyas for Sthavar Dravyas (Substitute Drugs of Plant Origin)

Drug Botanical Names Substitute Botanical Names
Chitraka Plumbago zeylanica Linn Danti Baliospermum montanum Muell
Shikhari (Apamarga) Achyranthes aspera Linn
Dhanvayas Alhagi camerlorum
Fisch
Duralabha Fagonia Arabica Linn
Tagar Valeriana wallichii DC Kushtha Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke
Murva Marsdenia tenacissima W Jhingini Odina woodier Roxb.
Ahimsra Capparis sepiaria Mankanda Alocasia indica (Roxb.) Schott
Lakshmana Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad or Ipomoea sepiara Koenig ex Roxb Neelakanthashikha (Mayurshikha) Adiantum caudatum Linn or Celiosia cristata Linn
Bakula Mimusops elengi Linn Kalhaar
[Rakta Kumud]
Nelumbo speciosum Willd
Nelumbium rubra Roxb.
Utpal Nymphea pubescens Willd
Nymphea stellata Willd
Pankaj Nelumbo speciosum Willd
Nelumbo nucifera Willd
Neel-utpala Nymphea stellata Willd/ Nymphea Nouchali Burm.f. Kumud Nymphea alba/
N.rubra Roxb.ex Andrews
/N.edulisDC
Jati pushpa
(Javitri)
Myristica fragrans flout Lavanga Syzygium aromaticum (Linn) Merr. & L.M.Perry
Arka Payas
(dugdha)
Calotropis gigantean (Linn) R.Br. ex Ait Arka patra swarasa Calotropis gigantean (Linn) R.Br. ex Ait
Poushkar Inula racemosa Hook.f. or
Iris germanica Linn
Kustha Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke
Langali Gloriosa superb Linn
Sthouneya Clerodendron infortunatum L.
Chavika & Piper chaba Hunter Pippali mula Piper longum Linn
Gaja-Pippali Scindapsus officinalis Schott
Somraji
(Bakuchi)
Psoralea corylifolia Linn Prapunnad phala
(Chakramarda)
Cassia tora
Daru-nisha
(DaruHaridra)
Berberis aristata DC Nisha
(Haridra)
Curcuma longa Linn
Rasanjana Berberis aristata DC Darvi Berberis aristata DC
Talispatra Abbies webbiana Lindl Swarnataali
Bharangi Clerodendrum serratum Spreng Talispatra / Abbies webbiana Lindl
Kantakari mula Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl
Madhuyasti Glycrrhiza glabra Linn Dhataki Woodfordia floribunda Salisb
Amlavetasa Garcinia pedunculata Roxb or Rheum emodi Wall Chukra Rumex vesicarius Linn
Draksha Vitis vinifera Linn Kashmari (Gambhari) Gmelina arborea Linn
Kashmari phala
(Gambhari)
Gmelina arborea Linn Jati pushpa Myristica fragrans flout
Draksha & Gambhari Same as above Madhuca Madhuca indica
Kankola Piper cubeba Linn.f. Sugandhi Mustak Cyperus rotundus Linn
Karpura Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm Granthipara Angelica glauca Edgw
Kumkum Crocus sativus Linn Kusumbha Carthamus tinctorius Linn
Shrikhanda
(Sweta chandan)
Santalum album Linn Karpura Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm
Sweta chandan & Santalum album Linn Rakta chandan Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f.
Karpura Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm
Rakta Chandan Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f. Usheera (Nava) Vetiveria zizanoides (Linn.) Nash
Ativisha Aconitum heterophyllum Wall Musta Cyperus rotundus Linn
Shiva
(Haritaki)
Terminalia chebula Retz Shiva
(Amalaki)
Emblica offcinalis Gaertn.
Nagpushpa
(Nagkeshar)
Mesua ferrea Linn Padma keshar Nelumbium speciosum Willd
Meda & Polygonatum cirrifoluim Linn Vari
(Shatavari)
Asparagus racemosus Willd
Mahameda Polygonatum verticillate
Jeevak & Microstylis wallichi Linn Vidari kanda Pueraria tuberose D C OR
Ipomoea Digitata Lin
Rishbhaka Microstysis muscifera
Kakoli  & Fritillaria roylei Ashwagand-ha Withania somnifera Dunal
Ksheerakakoi Liluim polyphyllum D.Don
Riddhi Habenaria edgeworthii Varahi kanda Dioscorea bulbifera Linn
Vriddhi Habenaria latilabris
Varahi kanda
(Grushti)
Dioscorea bulbifera Linn Charmakar
alu
Tacca aspera Roxb.
Bhallatak
Asahatva
Semecarpus
anacarduim Linn f
Rakta
chandan
Pterocarpus
santalinus Linn. f.
Bhallatak Semecarpus anacarduim Linn f Chitra Plumbago zeylanica Linn

Pratinidhi Dravya for Jangam Dravyas (Substitute Drugs of Animal Origin)

 
Sr. No. Drug Botanical Names Substitute Botanical Names
1 Kasturi Moschus moshifera Kankola Piper cubeba Linn f. Piperaceae
2 Nakha Helix aspersa Lavanga pushpa Syzygium aromaticum (Linn) Merr.& L.M. Perry

Pratinidhi Dravya for Ahariya Dravya (Substitute for Food Substances)

 
Sr. No. Drug Latin Names Substitute Botanical Names
1 Ikshu Saccharum officinaria Nala Phragmites Kirka Trin.ex.Steud or
Lobelia nicotianaefolia
2 Madhu Obtain from Honey Bees Jeerna guda Obtained from Sac charum officinaria
3 Matsya khanda Condensed extract of Saccharum officinaria Sita sharkara Common sugar obtained from Saccharum officinaria
4 Sita Common sugar obtained from Sacc harum officinaria Khanda Crude sugar obtained from Sacc harum officinaria
5 Ksheera Mudga rasa/ Phaseolus aureus
Masurak rasa Lens culinaris

4-Mar-2014
More by :  Dr. Swapnali Tulsankar
 
Views: 591
 
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