New Society/ New Nation
During the Cold War period the capitalist America and the communist Russia had divided the world into two by supporting the countries under their umbrellas politically, economically and militarily. The countries that were not lured by the policies of the two Super Powers either remained neutral or non-aligned. Within a period of 20-30 years the capitalist countries like France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, etc. recovered from the terrific devastations of the second World War and developed technologically, economically, socially, politically, etc. far beyond all expectations making the notion that the capitalist route would lead only to gloom a farce!
And the countries like China, North Korea, Cuba, Romania, Albania, and Czechoslovakia, etc including the Union of Soviet Socialist Russia, the leader of communism that followed the path of communism retarded much economically, technologically, socially, politically, etc. except in military developments to pieces the most cherished aim of building a new society and a new nation that would be the envy of the world in all round developments in all respects with the ideal of communism/ socialism! In reality the capitalist countries progressed much, the communist countries retarded far below any expectation without any relief or respite and the neutral or non-aligned countries neither progressed nor retarded much.
The Cause for the Ascent of Capitalism and the Downfall of Communism of the World
The champion of Non-Violence, Mahatma Gandhi said that if you aim for a good end the means you follow to achieve it should also be good; i.e. if your means is good your end will also be good and so, if your means is bad your end will also be bad. This is a Universal fact which is happening everywhere even today. The communist countries that wanted to achieve a socialistic society in the world embraced dictatorship rule but failed miserably. On the other hand the capitalist countries that embraced democracy met with full success!
Behind the iron curtain motivated by the dry slogan that 'from each according to his capacity and to each according to his need' Soviet Union and other communist countries made their people to do duties without any liberty or rights for more than half a century and the workers of the USSR later knowing the lies of the authority pretended to do work as they were pretended to be paid! As everything was going on in isolation, exchanges of new ideas were not possible and as a result developments in technologies were not possible. As religion, literature, history, culture, etc. were not encouraged except science and technology and economically productive activities only, free thoughts and creative activities were not possible and the progress of the society was also not possible there. As the route they were following was crude, difficult and obsolete, there was no quality in their workmanship and products; they could not increase the quantity of their products and the variety of their products was also very, very less.
On the other hand the capitalist countries within a short period met with success in achieving all round developments in all fields because of their freedom of thought, expression, openness, creativity, innovation, incentives and entrepreneurship qualities of the individuals. Because of openness and transparency of their activities, free exchanges of ideas in the fields of science and technology were easily possible among them. Their road to developments in all fields was naturally easy and free. Working people were encouraged with incentives and the quantity of the products increased. The creative and the inventive activities of enterprising individuals were taken care of and given a free hand to show their best in the fields they were interested.
A variety of new articles, things, etc. were introduced in the open market and because of wide reception and skilful workmanship of the employees, the quality of the goods improved very much. As their ideology is not rigid unlike the socialist countries, new methods were adopted according to the changing times and efficiency in the work due to healthy competition and rapid production due to large scale mechanization everywhere led to quick economic growth in all the Western countries including Japan, South Korea, etc. in the East. Not only that, activities in arts and literature also improved and increased due to freedom of thought and expression which improved social thinking and the standard of living of the people there.
Historical Changes after 1980
Glasnost and Perestroika
Many changes have occurred in the 80s and 90s. The greatness of history lies in the hands of great men whose decisions decide about the fate of mankind. One such historical leader who cannot be forgotten today is Mikhail Gorbachev of Russia. Mainly due to his policies such as 'glasnost' and 'perestroika' many unprecedented changes have taken place in the world since 1987 onwards.
He wanted Russia also to develop like the capitalist countries in all respects so that his country could move freely with the countries of the west as far as trade, tourism, friendship and cultural activities were concerned. For that the iron curtain had to be removed everywhere. To do so, as an antidote, he advocated the policy of glasnost or openness for his government.
Failure of Socialism
Gorbachev felt communism should have been experimented in the village level rather than in the national or federal level and that was why it had failed. He was well aware of the bureaucratic jingoism under the guise of socialism in his country. Because of his statement like utterances and broad minded attitude he became a critic of economic machine that alarmed and confused the bureaucracy that controlled the steering wheel of the Soviet Union. Socialism totally failed because it nurtured an oppressive and repressive bureaucratic and political structure. So to change this trend as an antidote, he prescribed his famous perestroika or restructuring or reform for his country.
Free Market Economy
Then Gorbachev recommended free market oriented economy as the best solution to rectify the worst condition of his country's economy. The economic remedies he prescribed were 1. encouragement of privatization instead of nationalization, 2. allowing freedom and rights to his country men and 3. democratization of his government as in the west instead of dictatorship of the proletariat.
Those were Gorbachev's main internal reforms of Russia. To execute those reform measures, he felt it was a must to cut defense expenditures to a great extent. For that he suggested that the best course would be 1. banning of Arms production, 2. withdrawal of Soviet troops from abroad and 3. stopping of Cold War with USA once and for all.
D'tente and Common European Home
By executing those plans he thought of establishing d'tente between East and West in Europe; two objectives needed to create One Europe were banishing of war from the continent and laying firm foundation for democracy. Later on his most cherished dream of common European Hone for Russia he decided to achieve. To effect that he was even prepared to dismantle Warsaw Pact Treaty Organization and join North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
But What happened Next?
Russian troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan, East European countries and other parts of the world.
The then political form of govt. was changed to democratic form of govt. in Russia.
The summit meeting between USSR and USA was held to stop further Nuclear Arms Production and a treaty was signed between them for the reduction of Arms positioned at various strategic points of the world.
To implement that agreement at stages the installed antiballistic missiles at the strategic points in Europe and other parts of the world were dismantled.
The constituent States of Soviet Union such as Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Mondovia, Georgia, etc. started for national independence and once and for all dismantled themselves from the clutches of the Soviet Union.
In the world politics Europe has come to the centre stage. Everyone was eagerly expecting the formation of European Union at that time. As far as culture, literature, religion and civilization are concerned there is not much difference between one state and other state in Europe. There is much cooperation and coordination in all the fields because of their similarity of attitudes in many matters. The West Europe is economically and technologically far developed when compared with their counter part, the East Europe. Slight language differences are there. That is all. Already the European Council, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and other institutions are there that are providing necessary checks and balances and due to this European consciousness has developed to such an extent that Europeans are ready to forego their national sovereignty or national identity in the formation of European Union.
In 1990 the unification of West Germany and East Germany into one Germany after pulling down the Wall of Berlin has increased European consciousness very much. The member countries of the European Union such as Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Great Britain met very often to discuss about the ways and means by which the European Union could be effectively established.
Common Currency and Defense
Among the West European countries there are tremendous potentialities for trade, tourism, sports and resorts activities that are boosting their economy from strength to strength. Due to such activities there were foreign exchange problems as the currencies differed from one country to another country. There might also be contraband, smuggling and drug trafficking activities, subversive and sabotage activities along the border areas of those countries. To solve those problems and make West Europe a giant economic power of the West, common currency, Euro and security force have been introduced under the European Union and a long cherished dream has been realized since 1999.
Democracy in Russia
The communist regime was pulled down along with the statues of Marx and Lenin in Russia. The communist hardliners tried to take over the leadership of the country by kidnapping Gorbachev to keep in darkness as was done to Kurtchev once. But Gorbachov was rescued by Boris Yeltsin, a Democratic Party leader, who then became the President of Russia after the democratic form of govt. with parliament was established there.
Problem of Peace
The problem of international peace still remains to be solved. The peculiar doubts, suspicion, mistrust and fear of some of the countries like China, Israel and France make it impossible to bring about peace in the world even in the future. Because of their particular humiliating experiences of the past, these countries want to be self-reliant as far as military is concerned so that they can face any eventuality independently and safeguard their sovereignty and identity in the world. Therefore the threat to world peace due to the stock piling of Nuclear Weapons and terrorism of various bases such as racism, ethnicity, religious fundamentalism, etc. looms large. Perhaps unless some statesmen like Gorbachev appear in the countries like Libya, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, etc. the present critical situation cannot be changed and total peace cannot be achieved in the world.
Due to the past humiliating experiences at the hands of Manchuria and Japan, China wanted to become strong both militarily and economically and so, started since 1950 onwards to produce Atomic Bombs and enrich its economy through communist route. It is still a developing country. But even after the cold war, it is regularly testing Atomic Bombs under the ground without a stop and this poses a great threat to the surrounding countries like Mongolia, Taiwan, etc. even though Russia, Japan and America have normalized their relationships with China.
Due to the historical rivalry between France and Britain and the unforgettably humiliating devastation it had suffered in the hands of Germany in the Second World War, France wanted to be strong, great and independent in the world. So, France too started producing Atomic Bombs without a stop since the Second World War. Even though its economy has developed now and it has good relationships with Russia, China, Britain, Germany and other countries independently, France does not want to become one of the many followers of USA in the international politics and so, it strengthens its army by modernization process even though the Cold War has come to an end. After the formation of the European Union France has become a key player in the affairs of Europe now.
Towards establishing an enduring peace in the world America is trying to stop the production of Nuclear Weapons in all the countries. Especially it is insisting all the developing countries like North Korea, Pakistan, India, etc. to strictly follow the guide lines of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It wants to bring all the countries within non-proliferation regime. But India says that if the NPT is to be genuine, all the countries including the Super Powers or the big five should destroy and stop production of Nuclear Weapons once and for all and only when there is an affirmation for this act from all countries, it will sign the NPT without any hesitation. Otherwise, as the Cold War has stopped and under the cover of the United Nations as USA is taking a dominating role in wars against a common enemy like Iraq, etc. there are a lot of chances for America to become a permanent world police, which will not be liked by countries like France, India and China.
Another threat that affects the existence of mankind is the nuclear radiation polluting the environment. In 1986 a Russian Nuclear Power plant at Chernobyl endangered the lives there because of leakage in it resulted in a very big radiation problem. Before that in 1977 in Small Island in USA in a Nuclear Power station leakage was rectified before radiation hazard affected the area there. In many countries all over the world Nuclear Power stations are built to produce power necessary for industries and for commercial purposes. Unless such Nuclear Power plants are not properly safeguarded they would become a big problem threatening the very existence of the world in the future!
The Fate of Mankind
Nuclear Weapons in the hands of Terrorists
In one way it seems that the fate of mankind is in the hands of the Islamic Countries like Libya, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, etc., China, Israel and North Korea. It looks quite grim and horrible if we imagine a little about what will happen if the Nuclear Weapons are in the hands of the terrorists, especially with the Islamic Countries, Israel and North Korea. Certainly it will produce night mare to anyone; or everyone should be prepared to die if a great Nuclear War breaks out in the world. Therefore the solution will be that care must be taken to stop the production of Atomic Bombs or arrest the capability to produce such arsenals whichever be the country by the united efforts of all the peace loving countries in the world.
Already both for good and bad the feeling of Islamic brotherhood has united the Muslim countries into one. But their culture, faith and thoughts are not in accordance with the modern world trend, Eastern culture and Western civilization. Though other religions of the world have under gone a lot of changes and made reforms, only Islamic religion has not met with such changes and made reforms that keep Muslim people separate from other community peoples everywhere. This trend must be changed with realization by themselves or otherwise so that they would avert animosities and enmities among themselves and with others. Instead because of their dislike towards western culture, especially American domination, strength and technological advancements they in Iran, Iraq, etc. raise hot slogans and are even ready to manufacture Islamic Bombs to fight against their common enemy if possible and the necessity arises at anytime in the future!
World War III
If the Afghanistan extremists belonging to the Taliban group again take control of the full country and if a nexus between them and the neighboring Islamic countries like Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, etc. develops on the basis of a Holy War for the faith called Jihad as said in Koran fructifying in the minds of the hard core Islamic fundamentalists, there is every chance for a Religious War occurring in Africa, Europe and Asia leading to a Third World War between Muslims, Christians and other religious people of the world in the near future. This has to be carefully noted by all the leaders of the world controlling the world affairs in a peaceful way and checks have to be made on the subversive activities of the religious perverts now itself so that the Future World War can be thwarted in the beginning stage itself.
Conversion to Communism against World State
Another danger is if the union among China, North Korea and Cuba develops on the basis of promoting communism in the world and thereby they happen to produce Atomic Bombs for that purpose they could use them in war with neighboring capitalist countries leading to chaos and unwanted developments on a large scale in the world which will not be in the interest of the modern thinkers of the World Union or World State for the future well being of the world people. Therefore this kind of activity also needs checks now.
Best Course of Action
The best course of action for solving the problems of the world lies in the creation of One World so that peace and prosperity can be achieved for all. For that the States of world where dictatorship rule or communist form of govt. prevails have to be democratized. To stop the future wars, the attention of the countries should be diverted towards solving the greater problems like pollution of environment and exploitation of natural resources and should be directed towards eradicating diseases like cancer, diabetes, AIDS and skin and eye diseases caused by the ultra violet rays of the sun through the Hole in the atmosphere due to air pollution by industrial smokes, etc. Further joint programs of Space exploration by USA, Russia, Europe, India, Japan, etc. can be planned and implemented in an organized way if the World State is created.
The probable moves for the creation of One World State could then be:
1. the idea of One Europe should be achieved;
2. next the Russian dream of One European Home can be achieved by uniting One Europe with Asia; and
3. if such an effort is extended to other countries of the world with the initiation of USA and UNO, World Union can very well be achieved soon!