Synonyms of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.):
Shigru,Shigruk,Shaigrav,Shobhanjan,Teekshnagandha,Teekshnagandhak, Aksheev, Mochak, Krishnagandha, Avadanshaksham, Dansha, Moolakparnee, Mukhabhanga, Shwetak, Shwetamarich, Raktak, Sheeghrak, Ghanapallav, Murangee, Subhanjan, Vidradhighna, Moolakchchada, Swadugandhee, Madhugndhik.
Vernacular names of Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.)
Samskrita : Shigru
Hindi : Sahijan
Marathi : Shevaga
English : Drum stick plant, Horse radish tree.
Gujrathi : Sargosha, Sekato
Bengali : Sejana, Sajina
Assam : Sajina, Sohjna
Malyalam : Muringa
Orisa : Sajina
Urdu : Sahajana
Telgu : Munaga
Tamila : Murangi
Punjabi : Sohanjana
Different Nighantu have included Shigru in different varga:
1. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu − Guduchyadi
2. Dhanvantari Nighantu − Karaveeradi
3. Raja Nighantu − Moolakadi
4. Kaiyadev Nighantu − Aushadhivarga
5. Priya Nighantu - Shakavarga
6. Madanpal Nighantu − Shakadivarga
7. Shodhala Nighantu − Karveeradi
8. Nighantu Ratnakar − Gunadoshaprakaran
9. Aadarsha Nighantu − Shigru- adi Varga
10. Shaligram Nighantu − Guduchyadi
11. Abhidhan Ratnamala − Katuras dravya
12. Haritakyadi Nighantu − Shakavarga
External Morphology or Macroscopic Description
Botanical Description :− It is a fast growing, perennial, small or medium sized deciduous tree, 8−10meteses in height, with straight trunk (20−40 cm in diameter) to a height of approximately 1.5 to 2m prior to deveiopment of lateral branches and spreading slender cylindrical branches.Bark : Corky, soft, thick,deaply fissured. Wood is soft. Leaves :−Leaves are tripinnaate , 30.5−61.0cm long and arranged spirally around branches;Pinnae are imparipinnate with the terminal leaflet ob−ovate and slightly larger than the somewhat elliptic lateral leaflets that are 13−20mm long 3−6mm wide. The trees remain evergreen under tropical environment while being deciduous in temperate climates.
Flowers :− Flowers are very laxly arranged in drooping panicles 10−30 cm in length. They are creamy white in colour, fragrant, irregular.Bisexual in nature. Depending on the climate trees either flower annually or biannually. The individual flower is zygomorphic, pentamerous and 25mm in diameter. Flowers are insect pollinated. Pods:−Pods are cylindrical, pendulous, triangular ribbed greenish, slender, longitudinally furrowed 22.5−50cm long or more in length and 1.0−1.5 cm in diameter. Depending upon genotype it can be 60−120 cm long. Seeds: Trigonus and winged. 0.5 to 1.0 cm long and 0.3 to 0.5 cm wide; colour is grayish−cream ; Odour is non characteristic;Taste is slightly bitter. Root: − External surface is light grayish−brown, rough, reticulated, marked with transverse row of lenticels;outer barkis thin peeling off in small bits, internal surface is white.
Prakara of Shigru
Shigru is of two typesas described by Bhavaprakasha Nighamtu, Kaiyadeva Nighamtu,Dhanvantaree Nighamtu, Madanpal Nighamtu.
1) Shweta Shigru
2) Rakta Shigru(Madhu Shigru)
The Rasapamcaka of Shigru
Rasa − Katu, tikta
Vipaka − Katu
Virya − Ushna
Guna − Ushna, Teekshna, Laghu, Ruksha.
Action on Dosha
Kaphahara – By its Katu Tikta rasa, Ushna,teekshna guna and Katu vipaka it help in cleanse (Shodana) of Kapha.
Vaathara – By its Ushna virya and Ushna, Teekshna guna it act as vaatshamak.
Action on Dhatu
Rasa−Rakta – Kushthaghna, Kandughna, Pleehaghna.
Med− Medoroghna, Apachihara
Asthi – Vidradhihara.
Action on mala
Mutra− Ashmarighna, Shothaghna.
Action on Strotasa
Medavaha – Medorogaghna
Mansavaha – Granthi, Apachi.
Annavaha – Rocana, Agnivivardhana, Aamhara.
Mutravaha – Ashmarighna, Shothaghna.