Quality Parameters in Higher Education by Prof. Dr. Ram Sharma SignUp
Boloji.com
Boloji
Home Kabir Poetry Blogs BoloKids Writers Contribute Search Contact Site Map Advertise RSS Login Register
Boloji
Channels

In Focus

Analysis
Cartoons
Education
Environment
Going Inner
Opinion
Photo Essays

Columns

A Bystander's Diary
Business
My Word
PlainSpeak
Random Thoughts

Our Heritage

Architecture
Astrology
Ayurveda
Buddhism
Cinema
Culture
Dances
Festivals
Hinduism
History
People
Places
Sikhism
Spirituality
Vastu
Vithika

Society & Lifestyle

Family Matters
Health
Parenting
Perspective
Recipes
Society
Teens
Women

Creative Writings

Book Reviews
Ghalib's Corner
Humor
Individuality
Literary Shelf
Love Letters
Memoirs
Musings
Quotes
Ramblings
Stories
Travelogues
Workshop

Computing

CC++
Computing Articles
Flash
Internet Security
Java
Linux
Networking
Society Share This Page
Quality Parameters in Higher Education
by Prof. Dr. Ram Sharma Bookmark and Share
 

We can’t ignore when the recent World Bank Study states that India has earned the distinction of having the world’s second largest education system after China. If we throw a holistic look on the history of our country, we find that “In ancient times Takshashika and Nalanda were great seats of advanced Vedic and Budhist studies respectively. Vallabhi (in Gujarat) and Vikarameshila (in Bihar) flourished in the medieval ages. Nadia and Mithila were other well-known centres. Other institutions known as ‘tols’ in Bengal also carried on the tradition of higher education. The 18th century witnessed the rise of more institutions and a new functional curriculum known as Darse-Nizami was introduced.” [1]
 
The first modern College (Calcutta Madras) was founded in1781, followed by the Sanskrit College of Banaras (1792), and the Hindu College of Calcutta (1817), were established by the East India Company. Three universities - One each at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established in 1854. Later on many universities and colleges came into existence.
 
The Calcutta University Commission Report (1917-19) brought some changes in education as Intermediate/Secondary classes were delinked from the university. Each state was to have one upon university. The first State Open University was opened in August 1982, at Hyderabad, followed by the prestigious Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1984. 

Under the formal education system, as on 31st March, 2000, India had 259 Universities/deemed universities and 11594 colleges with a total enrolment of 93.14 lakh students, of whom only 33.24 lakh are female students. The P.G Colleges numbered 1500, with 6911 colleges located in urban areas.” [2]

Today we see an enormous increase in the numbers of colleges, universities and students. Its result comes out due to the decline in the quality of higher education. Numbers of colleges, universities are increasing day by day but quality in higher education is deteriorating. Nothing illustrates this better than the plummeting faith of the employers in the value of the university degrees and diplomas, and the trend of delinking of degrees from job requirement. Higher education is now taken care of by universities / deemed universities, autonomous colleges and institutions of higher learning like IIT, IIMS, and ALLM etc. Due to the long line of colleges and universities our system of higher education is facing the challenge of managing quality assurance. Therefore the quality of higher education has become a major concern of today.
 
Quality and excellence are the watch-words in today’s liberated environment. Increasing cross-border education opportunities, technological development resulting in new modes of educational provisions and emergence of ‘knowledge society’ are other factors. In view of the rapid advancement of knowledge and rapid growth of complexity of technologies endeavor, the future will need greater competencies and as a consequence higher education must provide improved and speedy methods to meet today’s needs and face tomorrow’s challenges. While the expansion of the system of higher education has been impressive, the problem of access with equity, quality, and that of resource continue to burden the system as a whole.
 
In this era of globalization the requirement of International exposure to the students during the period of their study is being increasingly felt. When a student goes for higher education or applies for job, he or his interviewer uses the quality parameters of higher education and compares the colleges and universities. The purpose is to guage his international exposure that can be achieved only by the education of global quality standards. Needs and expectations of the society are changing very fast and the quality of higher education needs to be sustained at the desired level. The challenge has been rendered even more formidable and inescapable by the entry of educational centers of foreign universities, thanks to globalization and InfoTech revolution. More recently collaboration with foreign universities in certain advanced academic programs has also been incorporated in the system. Each country establishes its own Quality Assurance Agencies for higher education so that quality and excellence can be maintained and seen in higher education. 

The Quality Assurance for Higher Education works to ensure that higher education qualifications in the United Kingdom are of a sound standard .It protects the public interest by checking how universities and colleges maintain their academic standards and quality. It also regulates the Access to higher education diploma-a qualification that enables individuals without A-levels or the usual equivalent to each higher education.” [3] 

India has also its Quality Assurance Agencies and organizations [4] that play a great role in higher education accreditation. These agencies/organizations aim at maintaining the quality and standard of higher education. They attempt to improve the quality of teaching and encourage initiating research activity, which gives a positive feedback to their teaching programs. Without accreditation 

it is emphasized that these fake institutions have no legal entity to call themselves as university/vishavidyalaya and to award ‘degree’ which are not treated as valid for academic/employment/employment purposes.”[5]
 
In this paper UGC and AICTE and their accreditation agencies are being discussed. 

Since India attained independence in 1947, concerted efforts are being made in the country for the improvement of quality in higher education. Quality would mainly depend on the quality of all its facets, be it the Faculty Staff, Students, Infrastructure etc. As such, all the policies, systems and processes should be clearly directed towards attaining improvements in all the relevant facets for the overall rise in the quality of education. Several quality parameters or measures have been outlined in policy documents of the government and are working in our country for the different fields but in higher and technical education, the responsibility of assuring quality is basically given to National Accreditation bodies by National Policy on Education (1986). 

UGC and AICTE Acts provide for the establishment of Accreditation bodies like NAAC and NBA respectively. NAAC does institutional assessment of generally the conventional universities while NBA undertakes assessment in professional institutions. The University Grants Commission (UGC, 1953) prescribes the service conditions of teachers, provides curricular guidance through its subject panels, accords recognition to universities, and funnels maintenance /ad hoc grants to the Central Universities and supplementary funds to other universities. Many states have their own UGC to regulate the functioning as well as to provide financial aid to universities in their own jurisdictions. 

In 1993 UGC’s Punnaya Committee on funding of higher education stated emphatically, “It is the perception of the committee that the state must continue to accept the major responsibility for funding the essential maintenance and development requirements of the universities.” [6] 

UGC has been taking steps, through various schemes, to promote quality education having regard to the concern Access, Equity, Quality, Excellence, Relevance and Value Based Education. These five goals were the vision of Dr. Radhakrishnan who gave a new direction and life to society through his valuable vision on education. The 1986 Policy and Action Plan and these for the development of higher education is based on the two landmark reports namely the University Education Commission Report of 1948-49 (popularly known as Radhakrishnan Commission) and the Education Commission Report of 1964-66 (popularly known as Kothari Commission) which covers all the levels of education in the country required for the intellectual, spiritual and all-round development of the nation. Chapter xi of Education Commission Report deals exclusively with the ‘Objective and Improvement’ of higher education, which form the crux of the National Policy on Education that come soon after and the commission enunciated five main objectives of universities in the modern world and these are abridged below:

During the plan of xi, twelve more universities were recommended by the Standing Committees on UPE. These universities were called “Centre with potential for excellence “in a particular area by The Standing Committees; National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC, 1994). In order to assess the quality and to stimulate culture of excellence a central body has been introduced in 1994-National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) with its headquarters at Bangalore. The NAAC accredits traditional arts, science and commerce colleges. It assesses the level and relative ranking of the institutions at the national level. Its positive role in quality assurance cannot be commended; it may as well as in order to undertake a critical review of its quality parameters. Its mission is “to make quality the essential element of higher education in India through a combination of self and external quality assessment and accreditation.” [8]  Towards this end it undertakes periodic assessment and accreditation of institutions of higher education or with units thereof, a specific academic programs or projects. Its evaluation of assessment and quality of higher education depends on seven criteria curricular aspects, teaching-learning and evaluation, consultancy and extension, infrastructure and learning resources, student support and progression, organization and management, healthy practices. 

  1. “to seek and cultivate new knowledge“, “to see truth” and “interpret old knowledge and beliefs in the light of new needs and discoveries”;
  2. to provide society the right kind of leadership in all walks of life;
  3. to provide society with competent men and women trained in agriculture, arts, medicine, science ,and technology, and various other professions, with a sense of social purpose;
  4. to strive to provide equality and social justice and to reduce social and cultural differences through diffusion of education ;and
  5. to foster in the teachers and students, and through them in society generally, the attitudes and value needed for developing the ‘good life ’in individuals and society.
  6. The University Grants Commission Act, 1956, empowers the UGC to take, “all such steps as it may think fit for promotion and co-ordination of university education and for determination and maintenance of standards in teaching, examination and research in the universities.” [7] 
In response to it, it is heartening to note the growing concern of the University Grants Commission for building quality assurance in higher education. Several schemes and programs of quality improvement have been launched by the UGC such as Faculty Improvement Programme (FIP), University Leadership Programme (ULP), National Education Testing (NET), Academic Staff College (ASC),and Autonomous College (AC). To achieve excellence in teaching and research activities, the UGC introduced a scheme namely ‘University with Potential for Excellence’ (UPE) during ix plan. In the first phase of this plan five universities-Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi), University of Hyderabad, University of Madras, Jadavpur University and University of Pune were identified in 2000 for granting the Status of universities with potential for excellence and each has been allocated an amount of Rs.30 crores during this plan. 
 

First three criteria (areas) are related to educational quality and the last four to institutional support structures. All the criteria have different weight ages .As the first three (education inputs) carry 55 percent weight age while the last four (institutional inputs) carry the rest 45 percent weightage. In other words, it amounts to about equal weight age to both the dimensions, with marginal edge of mere five percent to the educational dimension. This is certainly problematic both logically and empirically; logically because in assessing the quality of an educational institution education should get pride of the place; empirically because nearly 50 percent score to institutional context inheres a possibility of yielding a distorted rating of an education institution. 
For instance, the letter, with this kind of weightage structure a resource rich educational institution with poor performance on educational dimension may get a higher score, and thus pass for a better educational institution than the one which is resource poor with higher score on educational dimension. This may be a problem. Quality of an educational institution should be assessed primarily in terms of quality of education and only secondly in terms of institution inputs quality of education. Both quality of education and institutional inputs are treated separately. 
 
NAAC has a grading system in which institutions are graded on an alpha-numerical scale of 95-100 score for A++ grade to 55-60 score for C grade and seven intermillent grades.” [9] “A college is accredited on a nine-point scale from A++ to C based on the quality of academic and physical infrastructure as well as student facilities.” [10]  NAAC has accredited 129 out of a total 165 university-level institutions and 2956 colleges out of the total of 5273 colleges. “Exactly 945 colleges in Maharashtra are accredited by NAAC.” [11] “A mere 13 institutions in Gujarat were accredited by NAAC in 2005.” [12] 
 

Getting an accreditation from NAAC is mandatory for every college in the state. It would like to expand its activities to reach a large percentage of higher education centers and also to engage in research on the methodology of new accreditation parameters. Research related quality assurance in higher education, continuous modification and fine turning of the assessment and analysis of assessment and accreditation related documents, is imperative to any quality assurance agency. NAAC encourages stakeholder’s participation in quality assessment, encourages higher education institutions to develop internal system and processes for quality assessment, promotes the development and dissemination of best practices as benchmarks of assessment and quality enhancement, and collaborates with other agencies for quality assessment in higher education. NAAC will validate the accrediting agencies and set the standards for quality assessment in higher education. Institutional inputs of quality education are concerned NAAC has done a wonderful job. UGC and NAAC have made and are making commendable contribution towards generating consciousness in higher education circles. The parameters of quality education are also by and large well-conceived and devised. There is always a room for improvement in the existing framework.
 
Current Quality Status in colleges of higher education in India during 2007 is thus: 

Total No. of Universities Level Institutions -367
Total No. of Universities under UGC Purview -317
Number of Universities actually funded by the UGC -164
Number of Universities actually funded by the NAAC -128
Number of Universities accreditated by the NAAC and scoring above 60%.[13] 

It is suggested that the following existing schemes on quality improvement may be continued:

1. University with Potential for Excellence (UPE)
2. Colleges with Potential Excellence (CPE)
3. Special Assistance Programme (SAP)
4. Major Research Project (MRP)
5. Faculty Improvement Programme (FIP) 

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE, 1945) 
 

The term ‘AICTE’ refers to technical education and programs and makes them valid. AICTE is the only organization that approves engineering colleges all over the nation. If the college has no approval from AICTE, its engineering degrees are not valid in India. AICTE recognition means having the approval from State Govt. and State Technical University otherwise no engineering college can be started. Once the colleges get an approval from AICTE, they can associate themselves with the state technological university for start taking students for engineering studies. Some specific norms and standards regarding to technical education and programs are recommended and also checked with those minimum conditions by AICTE Council during the approval. With the passing of the AICTE has expanded its scope started “spanning over different departments, such as UG Studies in Engg. & Tech., PG and Research in Engg. and Tech., Management Studies, Vocational Education, Technical Education, Pharmaceutical Education, Architecture, Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Informational Technology, Town and Country Planning.” [14]
  

Nine bureaus have been developed by AICTE only to organize, plan and functioning of the above mentioned departments. Due to its wide scope and long time it has become very difficult to have a constant check on the quality of education during the approval time and on the same assess the new application for starting engineering colleges. Its impact could be felt when UGC and AICTE in 2009 were raided by CBI under corruption charges, their responsibilities were taken by NAAC and NBA at the order of the Union Minister of Education. UGC established an autonomous body known as NAAC to have periodic evaluations of art, science and commerce colleges and universities and AICTE established NBA for the same purpose but for engineering colleges and universities. 
 

National Board of Accreditation (NBA, 1994) 
 

National Board of Accreditation is an independent body and now it has become a global seal for the quality of professional education. It takes over the AICTE’s responsibilities and also undertakes assessment in professional institutions and then gives a quality certificate to them. NBA not only assesses/ “checks the quality of an institution but also believes in making the institutions aware of the importance of quality and also helps in improving the quality of the institutions but before providing them accreditation.”[15] NBA accredits program for three or five years. Obviously, programs with five years validity are better than those that have been given three year validity. 
 

Few months ago a program was held related to accreditation named World Summit On Accreditation (WOSA) in New Delhi from 25 March to 28 ,2012 in which the importance of NBA was discussed. This Summit was “a culmination of various initiatives undertaken by NBA to create an environment of global quality standards on Indian Campuses imparting technical and professional education to help seamless mobility during academic studies and also supporting students take us careers with industry.”[16] The theme of this Summit was to achieve excellence through accreditation in higher education and the main objective was “to bring India amongst the world leaders of accreditation which can make India‘s journey in the world smoother in terms of educational and professional areas.” [17] “NBA has been facilitating improvement of quality and relevance of technical and professional education in the country to bring it at par with international standards.” [18] 
 

Undoubtedly NBA produces professional talent for industry as the involvement of corporate sector or industry has its involvement in building global quality in higher education is seen. With a view to transform into knowledge society India “is encouraging industry and the corporate sector to support quality education. Reciprocating state initiatives, industry and the corporate sector are also seeking close collaborations with universities, technical institutions and business sectors.” [19] There are many professional institutions which have NBA accreditation and many are awaiting for. Arya College of Engineering & I.T. (Jaipur) is one of them. Its three branches (CS, Electrical and Automobile) have been recently accredited in 2012 and Arya Institute (Jaipur) is also awaiting for it. At last it may be stated that like NAAC, NBA accreditation is also mandatory.

This article is jointly written by the author with Dr. Anshu Bhardwaj (Sharma) Prof. in English Dept. Arya College of Engg. & I.T. SP-42, RIICO Industrial Area ) Kukas, Delhi Road, Jaipur (Raj.)

References:
  1. For a detailed treatment see : A .S. Altekar ,Education in Ancient India (Benares;1934-esp.pp.244-255);The Report of University Education Commission (1948-49),Chap.1;Nurulla and J.P .Naik , Students ‘ History of Education in India (1800-1947) (Macmillan),1955-Chap.1 to 4;M.Ashfaque Ahmad, System of Education in Medieval India (1526-1761 AD), New Delhi,1987; Moonis Raza (ed.) Higher Education in India: Retrospect and Prospect (Delhi),1991;pp.1-19.
  2. UGC Annual Report 1999-2000, pp.viii; ix and UGC Schemes (ed. D.N. Swami) pp.999 to 1011.
  3. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education
  4. List of recognized higher education accreditation organizations
  5. “CHEA International Directory Introduction.”chea.org.http.//www.chea.org/intelp/Internation Directory.asp. Retrieved 2011.05.24 
  6. Power, K.B., Conglomerate of Concepts and Practices, New Delhi, 2002, p.210 
  7. Draft Report of Working Group on Higher Education,11th Five Year Plan Government of Indian Planning Commission, New Delhi,9.2  
  8. Draft Report of Working Group on Higher Education,11th Five Year Plan Government of Indian Planning Commission ,New Delhi,11.45  
  9. Education Promotion Society for India, Need for Autonomous Multiple Accreditation Agencies  
  10. NAAC, NBA Tag a must for all colleges in State  
  11. Ibid   
  12. Ibid  
  13. Draft Report of Working Group on Higher Education,11th Five Year Plan Government of Indian Planning Commission, New Delhi,107-7  
  14. What is AICTE Recognition and NBA Accreditation? June 23 by Zahid
  15. Our aim is to make NBA a global seal of quality education: Dr.D.K. Paliwal, Member Secretary, NBA (MBA Universe.com News Bureau (01 March, 2012/212 hrs 1st)  
  16. World Summit on Accreditation (WOSA, 2012) New Delhi: March 25,28,2012 Achieving Excellence through Accreditation  
  17. Our aim is to make NBA a global seal of quality education: Dr.D.K. Paliwal, Member Secretary, NBA (MBA Universe.com News Bureau (01 March, 2012/212 hrs 1st  
  18. World Summit on Accreditation (WOSA, 2012) New Delhi: March 25,28, 2012 Achieving Excellence Through Accreditation  19.Ibid  
     
29-Aug-2012
More by :  Prof. Dr. Ram Sharma
 
Views: 2939
Article Comment this is a very good and useful article. but can anybody answer of my question...
Question_ what are the indicators to assess in the teaching-learning process in the higher education ???


please answer.
shahnaaz
02/09/2016
Article Comment This a good articles. The historical details given in the beginning is very useful
Professor Vinod Kumar Gupta
03/02/2014
Article Comment Thank You for such an amazing information. It really helped me in understanding
the accreditation of various bodies of education and it made me love myself because of the knowledge of the World's First University which luckily is also my name.. Thank You so much for that..
Takshashila Jadhav
01/29/2014
Article Comment Takshashika University was not Vadic University. It was Buddhist University.
World first University Takshila
1) ????? ?? ???? ???-???????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? '???????? ?????????????' 700 (BC) ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? "?????" ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? 18 ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? "??????? ????" (Ref. Rockhill’s life of Buddha pp65,63) ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????????, ???? ???????? ?? ?????, ?????????, ???-?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? (Ref. The Nagas of Ancient India by Damodar Dhammamamd Kosambi)

???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ?? 10,500 ?? ???? ????? 60 ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? '???????? ???????', ????????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? 500 ?. ??. ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???????? '???????? ???????' ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? "?????" ?? ???? ???? ???(Ref. A Guide of Taxila By Sir Johan Marashal pp.2-6 & Taxila Musiuam, Pakistan )

"????" ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?? '???????? ???????', ???? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ????-??????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? '???????? ???????' ?? 15000 Manuscripts ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? Al-Azhar University, Cario, Egypt ??? ??? ??? (Ref. Rockhill’s life of Buddha pp65,?? & Al-Azhar University, Cario, Egypt)

?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? 7-8 ??? ?? ??? 1000 ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????, ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ?? (Ref. Education in ancient India by A.S.Altekar )? ?? ??????? ?? 1000 ?????? ?????? 7-8 ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? 1,15,00000 ???? ?? ? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? Oxford-Cambridge-Colombia-California ?? 3-4 ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? "??????? ????????" ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ??, ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????????-??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??????? "??????? ????????" ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????????-?????-??????? ?? ?? ?(Ref. pp.7 Academic & Mediciene, Toronto, by A.F.Rudolf hoernle, C.I.E.)

???????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????, ?????, ??????????, ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? (?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??) ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ? ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??, ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?. ??. ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????: ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????

?????? ???? "??????? ????????" ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????????????, ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? 3rd B.C.E. ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??, ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??? ??? (Historical Geography of Ancient India by Sir Alexander Cunningham 86)

?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????, ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????-????? ??????-???????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????-???????- ????? ????????????? ?? ?? ?
Dr. Subhash Arya
09/10/2012
 
Top | Society







A Bystander's Diary Analysis Architecture Astrology Ayurveda Book Reviews
Buddhism Business Cartoons CC++ Cinema Computing Articles
Culture Dances Education Environment Family Matters Festivals
Flash Ghalib's Corner Going Inner Health Hinduism History
Humor Individuality Internet Security Java Linux Literary Shelf
Love Letters Memoirs Musings My Word Networking Opinion
Parenting People Perspective Photo Essays Places PlainSpeak
Quotes Ramblings Random Thoughts Recipes Sikhism Society
Spirituality Stories Teens Travelogues Vastu Vithika
Women Workshop
RSS Feed RSS Feed Home | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Site Map
No part of this Internet site may be reproduced without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
Developed and Programmed by ekant solutions