Time exists only as a stream of change in physical space. Change does not "happen" in time -- change itself is time. Time is a material change in a-temporal physical space. In the universe matter and physical space are in permanent dynamic equilibrium. The universe is a perpetual system that is constantly renewing itself. The total entropy of the universe sums to zero. The evolution of life and of human beings is a consistent part of the evolution of the universe.
In the universe the passing of physical time cannot be clearly perceived as matter and space directly; one can perceive only irreversible physical, chemical, and biological changes in material media. On the basis of elementary perception (sight) one can conclude that physical time exists only as a stream of change that runs through material space. The terms "physical time" and "change" describe the same phenomenon. Physical time is irreversible. Change A transforms into change B, B transforms into C and so on. When B is in existence A does not exist anymore, when C is in existence B does not exist anymore.
In Newtonian physics, physical time is an independent quantity (absolute time), running uniformly throughout the entire cosmic space (absolute space). In the Theory of Relativity, time is no more an independent physical quantity - it is linked with space in four-dimensional space-time. Here physical time is understood as a stream of irreversible change that runs through physical space. The important point is: Change does not "happen" in physical time -- change itself is physical time. This is a different and more correct perspective than the conventional view in physics, in which space-time is the theater or"stage" on which change happens. (1)
With introducing of "time is change" time is totally integrated into space. Space-time has transformed into a-temporal physical space where change run. With clocks we measure duration of change.
Density Of Physical Space
In Morgan Manuscript Einstein says that general theory of relativity can not be imagined without gravitational ether which is non homogeneous, and its state has no autonomous existence but depends on the field generating mater. Since in the new theory, metric facts can no loner be separated from true physical facts, the concept of space and ether merge together. (2)
Merging of physical space and gravitational ether introduces "non homogeneous density of physical space" that corresponds to the density of matter. The denser the matter, the denser the physical space. The density of physical space can be described in GR with the curvature of space. Gravitational force is attributed to the density of physical space. The "areas" of higher density attract each other. Gravitational force is immediate, it acts directly via physical space. Other three basic forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear force) are indirect, carried by some particle or wave that is moving through physical space. "Indirect forces" to act need to travel through physical space, for example: duration of the movement of light wave from the Sun to the Earth is around 8 minutes. For gravitational force to be transmitted between Sun and Earth no travel of particle or wave is needed. As physical space is a-temporal, also gravitational force is a-temporal. According to understanding here the hypothetical gravitational waves that travel faster than light should be a-temporal; the postulate of maximum velocity of light is saved.
A-Temporal Physical Space And EPR Experiment
A-temporal physical space brings new light about experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR). This experiment shows that two quantum A and quantum B which have been together and than send in the space in opposite directions "know" for each other in an instant moment. One could predict that in the EPR experiment the information medium between two particles is physical space itself. As gravitational force between Sun and Earth also information between particle A and particle B is a-temporal.
The Dynamic Equilibrium of Space and Matter
According to the first law of thermodynamics one can assume that in the universe energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed; the sum of the energy of matter and the energy of space is always constant: E matter (Em) + E space (Es) = E constant (Ek). In the first moment after the big bang Em = 0, Es = Ek. In the subsequent moments Es transforms into Em, and the transformation is over when Es and Em are balanced: Es = Em (Es = Ek/2, Em = Ek/2). With the formation of black holes, the transformation of Em into Es starts, Em is falling towards zero (Em --> 0), Es is rising towards Ek (Es --> Ek). With the transformation of matter into space the density of cosmic space is increasing. This process increases the gravitational forces between galaxies. The speed of expansion of the universe is decreasing, at a certain point the expansion will stop and the universe will start to collapse into an enormous black hole that then explodes into a new big bang. Big bangs are cyclic. The universe is in dynamic equilibrium (further on only DE). (3)
With the dynamic equilibrium between density of matter and density of space can be also explained astronomical observations which show that the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuously emits fresh gases. These gases then form stars and planets. When the stars get "old" they shrink and the gravitational force of the AGN sucks them back in. In the AGN the density of space is so strong that the energy of matter disintegrates back into the energy of space. This keeps the density of space in the AGN high, so it continuously emits fresh gases. The transformation "matter--space--matter--space--matter" is permanent, the AGN is the "rejuvenator" of matter.
The majority of cosmologists still consider the "red shift" as proof of the expansion of the universe, but they accept that part of the "red shift" is a result of the light "escaping" out of the strong gravitational field of the galaxies from which it comes to reach Earth. Van Flandern view is that the red shift is not proof for an expanding universe, moreover several discoveries confirm the opposite. (4)
It seems that the cosmological model of self-renewing galaxies has more experimental evidence than the cosmological model of cyclic "Big Bangs". However in the both of models the DE is a basic universal law. DE between space and matter is recreating the universe, DE between gravitational and tangential forces make it possible for planets to orbit around the sun, for the sun to orbit around the centre of the galaxy, the water circulation "ocean--evaporation--clouds--rain--rivers--ocean" is in DE, life chains of fauna and flora are in DE.
The Entropy of the Universe and the Evolution of Life
The universe is a "perpetual" system. It does not need energy to move with. It cannot be compared to the machines created by man where "for some work to be done some energy is needed". The second law of thermodynamics cannot be applied to describe universal dynamics. It is valid only for machines. The total energy of the universe and of a single galaxy sums to zero. An increase in the entropy of gas being produced in big bang or in AGN does not influence its total entropy.
Also for the movement of an stellar object no energy is needed. For example the force of attraction between physical spaces of the Earth and Moon is equal to the centripetal force which pulls the Moon from the Earth [ F attraction (Fa) = F centripetal (Fc) ]. For the movement of the Moon around the Earth no energy is needed [ Fa - Fc = 0 ]. By moving the stars and planets the universe does not get "tired". Movement is its intrinsic property.
In the self-renewing galaxy the evolution of life is a consistent part of the evolution of the galaxy. It can be understood as a process that is continuously developing towards a total entropy of the galaxy that sums to zero. The relationship between life as a continuous negentropic process and the zero entropy of the galaxy can be described with the following diagram:
X stands for a total entropy of the galaxy that sums to zero
Y stands for the evolution of life
Z stands for increasing of the entropy of matter
R stands for the renewing process of "old" stars into fresh gas in AGN
A stands for creation of stars
B stands for creation of planets
D stands for old stars
C-E stands for chemical evolution
E-F stands for biological evolution
F-- stands for evolution of conscious beings
(The diagram is also valid for the theory of Big Bang, fresh gas comes from big bang and renewing process of old stars happen in "Big Crunch")
According to this understanding evolution of life on the planet Earth is part of the evolution of the galaxy "Milky Way". This idea is supported by the discovery of basic organic molecules necessary for the development of life in the whole of observable space. (5) Universal space is in the phase of chemical evolution which on the Earth and similar planets has continued into biological evolution. Astronomers discover many planets similar to the Earth. Life could also develop there. All over our galaxy and also in other galaxies life is developing towards conscious species. Probably we are not alone in this vast universe.
Several experiments confirm that functioning of living organism is related to the gravitational field, which means to the physical space. Spaceflight induces a cephalad redistribution of fluid volume and blood flow within the human body and space motion sickness, which is a problem during first few days of spaceflight, could be related to these changes in fluid status and in blood flow of the cerebrum and vestibular system. (6)
In weightlessness there is a decreased activity of spinal ganglia neurons of the hypothalamic nuclei producing arginine, vasopressin and growth hormone releasing factor. Structural changes of the somatosensory cortex and spinal ganglia suggest a decreased afferent flow to the somatosensory cortex in microgravity. The results characterise the mechanisms of structural adaptation to a decreased afferent flow in microgravity by the neurons in the hemisphere cortex and brain stem nuclei. So, under microgravity there is a neuron hypoactivity. (7)
Experiment carried out at the University of Lubiana, Slovenia in 1987-1988 with Californian worms (Latin name is: Lumbricus Teresticus) shows that the weight of living Californian Worms is greater than of the same dead ones; gravitational force is stronger on the living worms than on the same dead ones. This means that physical space is more dense around a living organism than around a dead one. Physical space plays an active role in the functioning of the living organisms. This means that also in the evolution of life physical space presents an active component (8).
A-temporal Physical Space And Consciousness
Penrose and Hameroff's research suggests that the gravitational force of physical space is a basis for human consciousness: the force of quantum gravity acting on the mass of neurones within the brain may be responsible for the emergence of consciousness. The process is fundamentally related to the influence of quantum gravity on microtubule networks within the neurones. (9,10)
It seems that as physical space and gravitational force also consciousness is a-temporal. People reaching "peak experiences" have often experience of "timelessness" and "spaciousness".
Time exists only as a material change in a-temporal physical space. Gravitational force is transmitted directly by physical space. The hypothetical gravitational waves are a-temporal. The Dynamic Equilibrium between matter and a-temporal physical space is a self-renewing force of the universe. The second law of thermodynamics is not valid for the universe; its energetic resources are constant. The total entropy of the universe and of a single galaxy sums to zero. Evolution of life is a process that develops towards zero entropy of the galaxy.
We thank Roger Gouin for the helpful discussion on the AGN
1. Sorli A. (2004). Physical Time And Psychological Time. Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 13, Num 1
2. Sorli A. (2003), Gravitational Ether As The Origin Of the universe And Life , Physical Interpretations Of Relativity Theory, Proceedings of International Scientific Meeting, PIRT-2003, Moscow
3. Sorli A., Sorli K. (2004). Evolution As A Universal Process. Frontier Perspectives, Vol 13, Num 1
4. Van Flandern T. (2004). Did the Universe Have a Beginning?
5. Mason S. (1991). Chemical Evolution: Origin of the Elements, Molecules, and Living Systems, Oxford University Press
6. US Army (1993). Madigan Army Medical Centre, Tacoma, Washington ï¿½ Cerebral blood velocity and other cardiovascular responses to 2 days head down tilt. Journal of Applied Physiology. 74 (1): 319-25.
7. Krasnov IB.(1994). Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. ï¿½Gravitational neuromorphologyï¿½, Advances in Space Biology and Medicine 4: 85-110.
8. Sorli A.(2001). Additional Roundness of Space-Time and Unknown Vacuum Energies in Living Organisms, Frontier Perspectives. 10 (2)
9. Penrose R. (1994). 'Shadows of the Mind' (Oxford), 377-391.
10. Hameroff S. (1994). 'Quantum Coherence in Microtubules: A Neural Basis for Emergent Consciousness?' Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (1), 91-118.