The Nine Gems of Akbar by Dr. Neria H. Hebbar SignUp
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History Share This Page
The Nine Gems of Akbar
by Dr. Neria H. Hebbar Bookmark and Share
 
The Mughal Emperor Akbar (1543-1605), though illiterate and unable to read or write, demonstrated a remarkable appreciation of other religious thoughts. He was also a connoisseur of music and fine arts. The Mughal architecture, that later culminated in the glorious Taj Mahal, found its beginnings in Akbar’s rule. Music and miniature paintings reached their zenith. His tolerance to other religions perhaps came from his many queens including his principle wife who was a Hindu. He had also married a Christian, and several Indian and Persian Muslim women. Akbar reigned as the Mughal monarch for several decades and established himself as the most benevolent, tolerant Emperor; and history knows him as Akbar the Great.

The court of Akbar held some of the best India had to offer at that time. The Emperor had an enormously curious intellect. He would routinely assemble religious leaders of other religions in his court and patiently listen to them. Thus it was not only Hinduism he was curious about but had Christian missionaries who were more and more common after Vasco da Gama visited India. Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism also were his fascinations. He eventually formed his own religion, Din Ilahi, gathering the best from his understanding of the various religions. Akbar married thirty three times and had brides from all faiths. With his alliances with the daughters of nobles, he was able to bring peace in his empire. Several Rajput kings were his relatives by marriage and were loyal to him. Diplomacy through matrimony!

The great administrator who was also an aficionado of the arts attracted the best contemporary minds to his court. Nine such extraordinary talents, who shone brightly in their respective fields, were known as Akbar’s nine gems. The nomenclature as nine gems is chosen because there are nine well-known gems (nava-rathna). There were endless lists of worthy people in his court that shone like the brightest gems, and to choose only nine amongst them is a difficult task indeed.

  1. Abul Fazl

    (1551-1602) was the chronicler of Akbar’s rule. He authored the biographical Akbarnama, which was the result of seven years of painstaking work. He documented the history meticulously, giving a full and accurate picture of the prosperous life during the monarch’s reign. His account also shed light on the brilliant administrative capacity of the Emperor.

  2. Faizi

    (1547-1595) was Abul Fazl’s brother. He was a poet writing verses in Persian. Akbar had enormous respect for this genius and appointed him as a tutor for his son. His famous work is called Lilabati, on mathematics.

  3. Mian Tansen

    was a classical singer of unparalleled fame. He was born a Hindu in 1520 near Gwalior to Mukund Mishra, who was a poet himself. He learnt music from Swami Haridas and later from Hazrat Mohammad Ghaus. He was a court musician with the prince of Mewar and later recruited by Akbar as his court musician. The prince of Mewar was said to have been heartbroken to part with him. Tansen became a legendary name in India and was the composer of many classical ragas. His raga Deepak and raga Megh Malhar are famous. When he sang these ragas, Tansen was said to have lit the lamp and caused rain showers. He is also credited with creating raga Darbari Kanada and originating Drupad style of singing. Even today the classical gharanas try to align themselves with Mian Tansen. He was buried in Gwaliar, where a tomb has been constructed for him. There is a tamarind tree next to the tomb, which is reputed to be as old as the tomb itself. It is believed that one who chews a leaf from this tree in earnest faith will be bestowed with musical talents. It is unclear if Tansen converted to Islam. Akbar who was very fond of him gave him the title Mian. Tansen’s son Bilas Khan composed raga Bilaskhani Todi and his daughter Saraswati Devi was a well-known Drupad singer.

  4. Birbal

    (1528-1583) was a poor Brahmin who was appointed to the court of Akbar for his wit as well as wisdom. Born by the name Maheshdas, he was conferred the name Raja Birbal by the Emperor. A man of tireless wit and charm, he enjoyed the Emperor’s favor in administration as his trusted minister, and for his entertainment as his court jester. There are many witty stories of exchanges and interactions between the monarch and his minister that are popular even today. The stories are thought provoking, intelligent as well as educational. Birbal was also a poet and his collections under the pen name ‘Brahma” are preserved in Bharatpur Museum. Raja Birbal died in battle, attempting to quell unrest amongst Afghani tribes in Northwest India. Akbar was said to have mourned for a long time on hearing the news.

  5. Raja Todar Mal

    was Akbar’s finance minister, who from 1560 onwards overhauled the revenue system in the kingdom. He introduced standard weights and measurements, revenue districts and officers. His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as the British. Raja Todar Mal was also a warrior who assisted Akbar in controlling the Afghan rebels in Bengal. Raja Todar Mal had learnt his craft from another able administrator Sher Shah. In 1582, Akbar bestowed on the raja the title Diwan-I- Ashraf.

  6. Raja Man Singh

    the Kacchwaha rajput raja of Amber. (Later Kacchwahas built Jaipur, close to Amber). This trusted lieutenant of Akbar was the grandson of Akbar’s father-in-law. His family had been inducted into Mughal hierarchy as amirs (nobles). Raja Man Singh assisted Akbar in many fronts including holding off advancing Hakim (Akbar’s half-brother, a governor of Kabyul) in Lahore. He also led campaigns in Orissa.

  7. Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khan

    a poet was the son of Akbar’s trusted protector and caretaker when he was a teenager, Bairam Khan. After Bairam Khan was murdered by treachery, his wife became the second wife of Akbar.

  8. Fagir Aziao Din and  (9) Mullan Do Piaza

    were two advisors belonging to Akbar’s inner circle.

I have seen other names mentioned as gems of Akbar’s court. Daswant, the painter and Abud us-Samad, a brilliant calligrapher, have also been named in some articles. Mir Fathullah Shiraz, who was a financier, philosopher, astrologer and an astute physician, has also been mentioned. Nevertheless, it is apparent that Akbar’s court was filled with brilliant minds in the fields of art, administration and warfare.

With these varieties of brave soldiers with sharp intellect and wit as well as some of the greatest names in the world of art and music, Akbar ruled what history calls the greatest Mughal Empire. Akbar came to be called the greatest of the six great Mughal emperors. The foresight of this illiterate and dyslexic Emperor was remarkable and unique in history.

5-Apr-2003
More by :  Dr. Neria H. Hebbar
 
Views: 49298
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10/02/2014
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09/25/2014
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07/12/2014
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06/16/2014
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05/08/2014
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05/02/2014
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02/24/2014
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02/15/2014
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10/27/2013
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09/27/2013
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09/01/2013
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08/25/2013
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08/06/2013
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07/06/2013
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06/03/2013
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05/01/2013
Article Comment nice details
ashu
04/11/2013
Article Comment this really helped alot but i wish there were also pictures of the 9 gems..........but helped thanks....... :D
Nafisa
02/25/2013
Article Comment Very nice and informative article
manbir
02/06/2013
Article Comment its nyc for my 7 grd project

though increase info for humam

and pics pls tooo

extremely helpful
naman molri
01/07/2013
Article Comment excellent !!!!!!!!!!

i have got all details frm this site itself for my project..........................
riya doshi
01/04/2013
Article Comment Good piece of Information, would have more informative had the pictures been included. Anyway it helped me a lot in doing my 7th Class proj..
Shubhangi
01/01/2013
Article Comment nice!!! needed it for my h.w. helpful!!
Abigael Kumar
12/12/2012
Article Comment Lacks pics
shubhang
12/03/2012
Article Comment nice information but much more is needed on the last gem of akbar .
gurshaan grewal
11/28/2012
Article Comment nothing much is written about humam the physician and mullah do piaza...plz add it on
adwitiya
11/05/2012
Article Comment अबुल फ़ज़ल फ़ैज़ी बने रहिमाने रहिमान। 
मान सिंह का बीरबल, तानसेन की तान॥ 
दो मुल्ला दो प्याजा, मुल्लाह निज़ामुद्दीन। 
टोडरमल पैमाईश करें अकबर के आधीन॥

भारत का महान मुग़ल बादशाह अकबर निरक्षर होते हुई भी कलाकारों एवं बुद्धिजीवियों का विशेष प्रेमी था। उसके इसी प्रेम के कारण अकबर के दरबार में नौ (९) अति गुणवान दरबारी थे जिन्हें अकबर के नवरत्न के नाम से भी जाना जाता है।
1.अबुल फ़ज़ल 2.फ़ैज़ी  3. अबदुर्रहीम खान-ए-खाना 4. राजा टोडरमल 5. मुल्लाह निजामुद्दीन या फकीर अजिओं-दिन 6. तानसेन 7. बीरबल 8. मुल्लाह-दो-प्याज़ा  9. राजा मान सिंह।

अबुल फजल: (१५५१ - १६०२ ) ने अकबर के काल को कलमबद्ध किया था। उसने अकबरनामा व आइन-ए-अकबरी की भी रचना की थी।
फैजी:(१५४७ - १५९५) अबुल फ़ज़ल का भाई था। वह फारसी में कविता करता था। अकबर के बेटे का गणित का शिक्षक था। तानसेन: मियाँ तानसेन अकबर के दरबार में गायक थे। राजा बीरबल : (१५२८ - १५८३) दरबार के विदूषक और अकबर के सलाहकार थे। राजा टोडरमल: अकबर के वित्त मंत्री थे। इन्होंने विश्व की प्रथम भूमि लेखा जोखा एवं मापन प्रणाली तैयार की थी। :राजा मान सिंह: आम्बेर (जयपुर) के कच्छवाहा राजपूत राजा थे। वह अकबर की सेना के प्रधान सेनापति थे। अब्दुल रहीम खान-ऐ-खाना: एक कवि थे और अकबर के संरक्षक बैरम खान के बेटे थे। फ़क़ीर अजिओं-दिन: अकबर के सलाहकार थे। मुल्लाह दो पिअज़ा: अकबर के सलाहकार थे।

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Prof N L Shraman
11/01/2012
Article Comment nice details but........... humam ,... is missing out smehrer and pictures could rather potray more help to complete the project.. anyways nyc.....
kiara
10/28/2012
Article Comment last information is not borne out of facts
awesome!
joe
10/23/2012
Article Comment plz put some pictures
aditya
10/20/2012
Article Comment put the photo of the 9 gems of akbar but it helped me in my h.w very much it has lots of information about 9 gems of akbar
utsav
10/15/2012
Article Comment better than wikipedia
but.........................



.....


/....no pics
divyanshn kotawala
10/01/2012
Article Comment it helped in my project...................but add some PICS.
sahil
09/30/2012
Article Comment good comments sir but we would like the nine gems pic if u have plz mail the picture

thanks
shubham verma
09/01/2012
Article Comment it is very helpful, informative.
bipuljyoti rabha
08/29/2012
Article Comment nyc one ......................................................


but


there is no infomation about mirza aziz & raja bhagwan das
kitty
08/28/2012
Article Comment short information helful for my grade 7 project but needs a lot of pics please
dishani
08/15/2012
Article Comment useful my project
sharad soni
08/03/2012
Article Comment this helped me complete my project.if it was in hindi it would be better to me.
tanyabansal
06/16/2012
Article Comment an amazing site..it actually helped me getting information for my project.
I hope my teacher will be happy to read about the "nine gems" in detail..!! :)
$neha
06/09/2012
Article Comment it is a good site to know the chronological order of mughal empire specially akbar,s nine gems.
kaleemullah saeed
05/18/2012
Article Comment well summarized info it helps me a lot...........
Niki patel
02/11/2012
Article Comment great information but a little more pictures needed
sanjana chatterjee
01/20/2012
Article Comment Epic. I study in NPS Singapore and this just helped me in my H.W!!!


BUT!



NEED-OF-PICS!!!!!!!!
Prithvi
01/09/2012
Article Comment Fantastic information. I'm studying in 4th in NPS Chennai. It has helped me a lot in my 4th Std project. I got this info after a lot of search in the web along with my dad.
J Sudarshan
01/01/2012
Article Comment pl. provide the pics of the 9 gems.........
akshita
12/26/2011
Article Comment great information i like it..........................................................
ayesha aslam
12/21/2011
Article Comment I like this siteeeeeeeeeee veryyy much
Sai Ishwaram
12/17/2011
Article Comment akbar the great and his nine people
it help for my activity or project
thanks boloji
glazing stars
12/03/2011
Article Comment it helps me in my 4th std project.thx
tarjani
11/08/2011
Article Comment helpful for my project
juanita
10/26/2011
Article Comment i love akbar!!!
saima javed
10/25/2011
Article Comment awesome
braindude
10/19/2011
Article Comment it helped me 4 my project , Thank uuuuuuuuu,
gody
10/16/2011
Article Comment interesting but please add sum pictures of the 9 gems......i need pics 4 my project!!!!
suhana
10/14/2011
Article Comment thnxxxxxxxxxxxx for helping in my 7th class project .PLS add some PICS
sidharath baid
10/12/2011
Article Comment nice information
-
10/12/2011
Article Comment Thanks. Helped me lot in my 4th standard project. Should have pictures also.
Adwait Joshi
10/11/2011
Article Comment Thank You So much It Helped Me In 7th Class Project Akbar's 9 Gems
But Last 2 Gems Information Should Be More.
Siddhant Choudhry
10/10/2011
Article Comment Thnxxxxxxxxx this helped me a lot in my project on this topic!!!!!!!
Ash
10/04/2011
Article Comment Ahhaaan
ThnkXx to da creator oF dis wonderful website
It helped me a lot to do my project..:)
Maryoom
10/03/2011
Article Comment Interesting information but details about the last 2 need to be given
Khalid
09/26/2011
Article Comment bolo ji.com helped me for making my project on akbar's nine gems
himanshu
09/06/2011
Article Comment iam highly knowledgeable with this content
MIDHUNA GARAPATI
08/28/2011
Article Comment i likes it
harshdeep
08/23/2011
Article Comment nice information..............................
nishtha
08/17/2011
Article Comment great job,i've got all my informations thanx........
delshia purple
07/04/2011
Article Comment vvvvvvvvv nice...i liked it vvv much.........it was awesome...mujhe saari info mil gayi..!!!!!!!
mudit agarwal
06/20/2011
Article Comment vry nice.........ihave got all the contents which i needed to make my project.

amar
06/10/2011
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dhriti arora
06/06/2011
Article Comment nice details
neetu
05/25/2011
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