The treatment of love and sex in the poetry of all languages, art, painting and sculpture has always been a charming fascination. So has been the sweet temptation and irresistible desire to read and enjoy the same to beyond the last dregs. The treatment and studies of the subject have always faced a challenging crisis - social, moral, psychological, legal and even biological. However, with the radical growth of consciousness, there has been an astonishing change in our attitude to sex and love as poets, critics, artists and the common mass of mankind today, though we still adore and idolize the same with indecency, vulgarity, obscenity and even pornography. This aspect of our daily existence and life has never lost its sheen, luster and even glow, in determining, sustaining, sublimating and destroying the very quintessence of man-woman relationship. The wealth of the history of the subject is not only profoundly rich and abundant but also ever-fresh and ever-stimulating like the dense forest with all its vegetation, eternal inexhaustible springs gushing forward into brooks, streams and rivers surviving with the ferocious and the submissive inhabitants. It would be an unpardonable injustice if I mention some stalwarts and unmention many, many sages, saints, prophets, poets and artists of the genre. However, the literary obligations indispensably require some citations.
D. H. Lawrence is highly idolized as the greatest sage and saint of the poetry of love and sex today. His novels, stories, plays, poems and the bulk of critical essays incessantly enlarge upon the issues related to this life-force. Since the present study pertains to the three volumes of Dr. R. C. Shukla’s The Parrot Shrieks, I would like to quote from some poems of D. H. Lawrence. He says -
“The body of itself is clean, but the caged mind
is a sewer inside, it pollutes, O it pollutes
the guts and the stones and the womb, rots them down,
leaves a rind
of maquillage and pose and malice to shame the brutes.”
- Obscenity p 463
“Sex isn’t sin, ah no! sex isn’t sin,
nor is it dirty, nor until the dirty mind pokes in.
We shall do as we like, sin is obsolete, the young assert.
Sin is obsolete, sin is obsolete, but not so dirt.”
- Sex Isn’t Sin p 463
“Leave sex alone, leave sex alone, let it die right away,
let it die right away, till it rises of itself again.”
- Leave Sex Alone—p 471
“O pillars of flame by night, O my young men
spinning and dancing like flamey fire-spouts in the dark
ahead of the multitude!”
- Spiral Flame p 439
“When modern people see the carnal body dauntless and
playing among the elements neatly, beyond competition
and displaying no personality,
modern people are depressed.”
- When I Went To The Circus—p 445
“Women don’t want wistful
mushy, pathetic young men
Mushy and treacherous, tiny
Peterlets, Georgelets, Hamlets,
Tomlets, Dicklets, Harrylets, whiney
Jimlets and self-sorry Samlets.
Women want fighters, fighters
and the fighting cock.
The fighting cock, the fighting cock-
have you got one, little blighters?
Let it crow them, like one o’clock!”
- Women Want Fighters For Their Lovers p 457
“Come not with kisses
not with caresses
of hands and lips and murmurings;
come with a hiss of wings
and sea-touch tip of a beak
and treading of wet, webbed, wave-working feet
into the marsh-soft belly.”
- Leda p 436
“We’ve made a great mess of love
since we made an ideal of it.
It is not love any more, it’s just a mess.
And we’ve made a great mess of love,
mind-perverted, will-perverted, ego-perverted love.”
-The Mess Of Love p 472
We may continue from the treasures of D. H. Lawrence to listen to the shriek/s of Shukla’s parrot but the limitations demand a reluctant stop and be happy with the approach, application and attitude that emerge out of these precious gems. This acquaints us intimately with sex and love in their sacredness and sanctity, sinfulness, voluptuousness and vulgarity, necessity, need, comfort, consolation, relief, escape etc - physically, mentally, psychologically, intellectually, morally, socially; again etc.
Obviously, love and sex are eternally present thorn in our flesh; its discussion is thornier than the topic; it is thorniest when treated as a taboo and we feel shy or suppressed to talk or speak about it; it is shameful and degrading and debasing when we come out with pretensions about it. Dr. R. C. Shukla’s The Parrot Shrieks (3 Vols.) is at its best in taking the thorn out and when it is being taken out, it causes pain but when out, it is a heaven of relief when the shriek softens but doesn’t end. I don’t think any other Indian English Poet has done so with such candidness, chivalry, directness and dare and while reading these volumes, we feel the personalized experiences of the poet universalized. Thanx to the glory of the Muses! Also it astounded me to think, with due apology to Dr. Shukla, if he has done anything else than to be licentious with Lauras, Biches, Fornarinas, Juliets, Rosalinds, Violas, Cleopatras, Doyles, Harriets, Fannys, Maud Gonnes, Dianas etc.
D.H. Lawrence records the cry of chastity “in this mind-mischievous age!” when he says -
“O leave me clean from mental fingering
from the cold copulation of the will,
from all the white, self-conscious lechery
the modern mind calls love!
From all the mental poetry
of deliberate love-making, ...”
- Chastity p 469
Today sex is in the mind and love is nowhere, not even in sermons and obsequious reverence. To be more plain, or for that matter, blunt, all love is in sex from where flows all goodness, nicety, decency, charity, virtue, nobility; and without it, the indispensably essential basis of the working of our life, smooth and harmonious man-woman relationship, remains disturbed, perverse, strained and stagnant. In his prefatory note to the first volume of The Parrot Shrieks, Dr. R. C. Shukla says with forthright honesty of purpose:
“The poems included in this volume are poems about love between a man and a woman, an exercise in which the latter is normally passive and secretive. The woman’s love consists in her accepting the advances and then receiving whatever is given to her in the name of love. These poems are a very scrupulous expression of what I have myself seen around me. I must say, the poems that are here are a very unpretentious consequence of my own observation of the drama of love.”
In these lines, around me and my own observation need some particular attention. Then in his Preface to the third volume, Dr. Shukla says:
“This is the third part of my trilogy “The Parrot Shrieks” delineating the vagaries of man-woman relationship. Although I do not have a viable faith in what is commonly known as romantic love, I have written a large number of poems on this subject chiefly to explore myself. I have glorified love as I have repudiated it in my poems… In love, it is the man who gives, the woman only receives. The conflict arises when the man envisages his woman to be a giver.”
This amplifies Dr. Shukla’s approach and attitude to love and sex in this matter though he considers love the light of hope dimmed and extinguished by disbelief bringing despair. He further states that in love - “loyalty is a capricious liability conditioned by so many upheavals.”
Good are the times and fortunate is Dr. Shukla that he is free from the wrath of the censorious and safe from the cruel obscure allegations of being nakedly sensual and perverse or being sex-starved in his poetic portrait. It is a poetry of the pleasures of romantic agony or even the yearnings for that or even the wasting influence of misplaced love in La Belle Dame Sans Merci or Dante’s Bice or Shelley’s Harriet or Keats’ Fanny Brawne or Tolstoy’s Anna Kerenina, Yeats’ Maud Gonne. As we move on to read these poems from the first to the last, we are sweetly reconciled with the erotica and exotica of femme fatale in her complete localization by Dr. R. C. Shukla. Even after we are done with these volumes, we feel that notwithstanding the exhaustiveness of the exposition of the delicately disturbing subject, there should be more frank additions to our catalogue. Such is the ageless freshness and lavishly rich fertility of love and sex in determining and guiding the daily course of the sweet, sour salt and bitter of man-woman relationship in mythology, literature, painting, sculpture, painting, music and everyday life everywhere since antiquity. We are ever-fervent in sucking the most out of it whatever be our art or mode.
The poet says-
Not necessary she is pretty
is a poison succulent
in contrast with the soul
are sharper than the edge a razor has
She disturbs with her presence
breeds despair with her absence.”
- She Disturbs with Her Presence (vol.3) p 22
In How Long could this Relationship Last? In the same volume, Dr. Shukla says:
You are standing at a distance.
I do not mind the distance
I have this with so many
I consider my own……….”
The images of a cottage and a castle for a woman are new and imbued with rich fantastic meaning; a pilgrimage and a thoroughfare; we feel the refreshing charm of the cottage and the dull depressing monotony of the castle. (A Castle Just Thrills with its Façade p 27). Dr. R. C. Shukla presents the strain and stress and smoothness of this strain and symphony in an interesting manner. This is the working of love and sex in man-woman relationship before marriage, in marriage, beyond marriage in extra-marital charms with a different tune and each poem portrays a new object of desire in a new situation. So each poem has an aura of freshness as love and sex are ever-fresh, even it works as a taboo, and it remains an object of incessant charm and desire. The poet conceals nothing and reveals all with the boldness and dare of a saint of love who never finds it stale or stinking, disgusting or despairing, defiling or degrading but rather indispensable to everyday happiness and cheer and peace, whatever be the mood therein.
I often ask: “Who doesn’t want love?” and “Who doesn’t want to be loved?” Of course, to love is our birth right but to be loved is the privilege desired by all but enjoyed by few. The physical attraction in physical loveliness and physical brightness, glow and gaiety of looks and gait, cheerful and tremulous conversation, smartness and suppleness in the twists, turns and bends of body, the breezy whispers, melodious moans, stormy sighs, outflow of raging passions; resentment, anger, teasing, tearful or cheerful surrender, dreaming of hugs, kisses and bites, union in loneliness and absence, escapades and inscapes- nothing seems rich in diversity of moods, moments, mysteries, maladies, meandering mazy motions, countless come loving for whom we yearn, in whose love we languish and whose wasting influence we cherish and desire.
Dr. R. C. Shukla has touched upon the grace, glamour and grill of the abundance and opulence in the ivory towers or green bowers or thorny bushes or green lands or thick woods with warm steamy flow of freshening fragrances in gullies, streams, brooks and rivers with the gumption of a veteran. This is the poetry of rich romance, inexhaustible diversity, sizzling and steaming enchanting lyricism most suited to the subject and style. The poet has convincingly established that the fruition and failure of this generative and creative man-woman relationship solely lies in sex and love, requited and unrequited. There is nothing new in all that is essential in this but it has been unsaid and unexpressed in Indian English Poetry so frankly, so honestly, so faithfully- and seeming to be a live record of personal experiences, if not wholly but largely- before Dr. R. C. Shukla. His art of poesy is a wonderful gallery wherein image after image, situation after situation, persona after persona, the object of desire are inviting and inciting. Given the situation, we wonder at the prevalence and practice of bigamy, polygamy, biandry and polyandry since man and woman became aware of their biological existence.
There is profound truth in what perhaps G. B. Shaw has said that marriage is a legalized prostitution. So it is without marriage and it enjoys the dignity of an institution under various professional labels and banners. Single theme, single conversational style, sumptuous simplicity sung on the orchestra of love and sex, occasionally to the accompaniment of bagpipes by the poet. That is what sustains the symphony of the Aeolian harp electrifying the reader with a new current.
The poet tries to understand a woman in her viles and wiles during provocation and love-making whereas wisdom demands that we should make her feel wanted instead of rationalizing her behaviour in such situations. He reflects on romantic love, love as an aesthetic necessity and observes that “love never begins with spirit and , contrary to prevalent practice, never ends at the flesh.”(Prefatory Note to Vol.1).
Chastity has no relation with love, the poet asserts:
“Chastity is not the name of love
Nor commiseration, nor benevolence
It demands food for its need
Food for the eyes
Food for the soul.”
-Chastity is not the name of Love, Vol.1, p 17
He also claims that sexual cohabitation is not even physical. When it is season, clouds may not rain and simply thunder and roam like pilgrims in the sky; the peacocks also dance looking towards the sky; two grown up leaves touching and bending amorously over each other; the pigeons playing with their beaks and the two penguins bathing and then dancing and chirping. So, says Shukla:
“Sex is a proclivity, a symptom
An expression of mood, of intent
It is a prologue to the epic of love
Not exclusively the deed
Which is pure need.”
- Sex is not cohabitation alone, p 18
Dr. Shukla should have used Invocation here, not prologue. He thinks of woman as a fertile field and lauds her functional signification in filling her man’s life with bliss and blessing- as caretaker of life yielding hope and consoling her broken and fallen man and endures sustenance while feeding him with the fragrances of her flesh and quintessential honey. (Woman is a field fertile, p24). We are reminded of great British poets like Elizabethan Song writers, Spenser, Donne, Shelley, Keats, Browning and the Pre-Raphaelites who create unending delight in their sensuousness. Love poets are lovers too; successful, failed or defeated, doesn’t matter. The poet also thinks of love as an illusion blinking from heaven, a man’s obsession for his woman and the poor man loses his sense of judgment and is trapped. Man-woman relationship is unusual as that of glass and stone. Shukla doles out message of lasting wisdom to lovers for their success and fuller realization saying that it is man’s manliness she desires and longs to be won and defeated and yearns to reveal her secret fragrances and fruits and honey-pot to her manly man. She doesn’t like to and cannot wait and:
“She sacrifices her perfumes
At the altar of love
And invites the man to cross over
Through her gate…………”
-The Woman does not like one who waits, p29
This is a poem of deep and subtle psychological insight into the sexual surrender of woman. The poet maintains and sustains the dramatic beauty of sensuality in not suggestive but provocative manner.
A woman’s love is an invasion as she her silence and glance cast a magnetic spell on man and she throws herself in the romancer’s ground to gauge herself and her capability, her weapons, to bruise and wound the prey who may turn a recluse. (A woman’s love is an invasion, p 34) The poet feels that it is not possible to say anything with finality about a woman as she remains undefined and indefinable in her relations. She should be treated as a woman only:
“No final word can be uttered about her
She is intricate like fate
She is a woman
Nothing less, nothing more
An empty basket
A wholesome store.”
- No final word can be uttered about her, p 37
So infidelity is new morality, a virtue to be valued, and loyalty in love is a liability, according to Dr. Shukla. Here is Hamlet’s echo -
“Frailty, thy name is woman!”
- Hamlet in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, L145, Act I, Sc 2
It may be difficult to say whether woman is frail or she is the frailty of man or man is frail for her.
“Thus conscience does make cowards of us all.”
-Shakespeare’s Hamlet, L 83, Act III, Sc 1
Rosalind says in Shakespeare’s philosophical romance and the brightest comic bliss As You Like It that both men and women are uncertain, of course in love and loyalty but not in sex. Her observation there sums up this persistent consistency:
“Men are April when they woo, December when they wed.
Maids are May when they are maids, but the sky changes
when they are wives.”
- Rosalind in As You Like It, L139-41, Act 1V, Sc 1.
The song of Balthasar in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing comes as a great solace to women who always distrust men for their loyalty and faithfulness (perhaps to conceal their own infidelity). He sings:
“Sigh no more, ladies, sigh no more,
Men were deceivers ever;
One foot in sea and one on shore,
To one thing constant never.”
- Balthasar in Much Ado About Nothing, L 57-60, Act II, Sc.3
The vision of romantic love as viewed by Dr. Shukla is also loaded with diversity but he has best presented it as an illusion in which no wise man or woman will indulge. In the poem Romantic love is not different from an illusion, the poet regards it as deceptive relationship; adulterous love is merely a passion, it is dreamy; it is born of imbalanced thinking. Such a relationship painted with the façade of love is empty, bogus; it is like the majestic fort of the king, mutilated and dilapidated, crumbled and deserted inhabited only by the ghosts. The promises made therein are a willful and blatant transgression of the “boundaries of prudence”, hence tormenting and ruinous. Even the great holy scriptures forbid such a venture;
“Who has the courage to renounce religion
For the sake of love?”
- Romantic love is not different from an illusion, p 76
It is senseless love, restless love, rootless love, fatuous love, idiotic love, imbecile love. This is the message of sagacity given with a stern warning to avoid such love and follow the saner course only and be happy! That is why The desire to come to your dwelling is dead (p87). It is not possible to love without a true spirit:
“Can a man love two women at a time?
Can a woman
Repeat the same?
Loyalty is a value very high
But if loyalties are not allowed to clash
The very thought is profane…..”
-The necessity of Spirit is great, p95
Obviously, love enjoys social and moral, and hence, legal and religious sanction. Without it, it is vulgar and profane. Here the poet emphasizes the value of self-restraint and purity. He says:
“It is really exotic
An enlightened man remains engrossed
In one woman for the whole of his life.”
- Romance is not bigger than life, p 111
Dr. R. C. Shukla expects a woman also to be stable, virtuous, truthful, fair, honest, modest, innocent, soft in speech, tender in dealings so that love is not debased and sex doesn’t become obscene, vulgar and profane. In many of the poems, he has reflected on this aspect of man-woman relationship as it is not a one-way affair or traffic. In fact, it is a woman whose suggestions, provocations, innuendoes, ogles, slanting and secret looks, advances etc which elicit initially a fearful response which turns out to be a bold affair later. In his Foreword to the second Volume of The Parrot Shrieks, Dr. R. C. Shukla writes:
“Without any bias or prejudice, my experiences and observations, coupled with my readings have led me to the conclusion that a woman is a great riddle ever to be really understood by a man howsoever enlightened he may claim himself to be.”
The poet says:
“Women, most of them,
Belong to the fox
While men are obsequious, greedy dogs
Wagging their tails
To the hope of a bone.”
-Woman’s greatest amulet is her forbearance, p 46
“I met a woman
As devious as a fox
She regularly prayed, Visited shrines
Welcomed holy men
And also hunted unholy for her lust.”
-I met a woman, p 114
The poet tells us about an obstinate revengeful woman in a poem with the same title and warns:
“Such a woman is dreadful
Her invitations fraught with dangers
Her smiles snares
With an object prolonged.”
“Who can surpass woman?” is another assertion of the poet in this regard and he substantiates his point with the example of how Vikramaditya’s voluptuous brother, King Bharthari, was duped by Anangsena until Rooplekha enlightened the indulgent man-“And Anangsena proved to be shoddy before a strumpet.” So:
“Who can surpass woman
In presenting spurious emotions as genuine?” p 116
Dr. Shukla sketches a starved woman in naked images:
“The woman staring at you is starved.
She is hungry between her legs
You can give her something
She knows your quality
To kindle, to inflame
Then to cool.”
-The woman starved, p 118
The poet essentializes the beauty of man-woman relationship when he thinks that modesty in a woman and credibility in a man; that is the true beauty of a woman and that is the real strength of a man like the fragrance of flowers. He questions:
“What is a woman without modesty
A man without credibility
And a flower without fragrance?
Fragrant flowers are dear to gods
Modest women testimonials with their husbands
And credible men
Assets to themselves.”
- What is a woman without modesty? p117
R. C. Shukla has not only explained and explored the existing levels and directions of man-woman relationship but has made spontaneous and strenuous effort, in all honesty and earnestness, to dig out the unexplored and unknown layers and depths. No other poet in Indian English Poetry, not even Ramanujan, Kamla Das or Imtiaz Dharker or Dr. Rita Malhotra, and very few in British and American Poetry have done so much with such candour, and even nakedness. In Commerce, Shukla boldly exposes the hypocrisy of the people who protect under the umbrella of trade their impure adulterated emotions; he knows that not only men but women also are actively engaged in trading sex, we call flesh trade, and it is flourishing under different banners at different levels. This is Women’s Lib Movement! It was perhaps Henry James who observed that women are the greatest tyrants over women. People with seeing eyes and feeling hearts also see this going on unabashedly though they may not have the voice to protest to rectify the inhuman wrongs being perpetrated. Commerce is a poem of great insight into the movement of man-woman relationship on the tracks leading in different directions for the benefit of one for the other unmindful of the social and moral cost/s it entails. Perhaps this is the most cost-effective as it creates smooth and soothing harvest of relationships and life goes on!
The poet says :
“There are traders
Who purchase legs
And sell moral lectures given by priests.
I have seen markets
And found women
There are women
Not interested in husbands
They love only nights
And enter into contracts
That naturally expire.”
-Commerce, p 35
Sensual delight in sexual charm and fascination often leads to sexual desire and its initial continuity with frequency quintessentializes man-woman relationship in the evolutionary process of life the certainty of which is felt in its eternity. However, man’s areas of interests are wide and diverse and he is born or lives/loves to work in consonance and harmony with this diversity. This distribution of man’s daily load saddens a woman and she reconciles with her escape into arms and embraces of others which is by way of adage described as her infidelity. If man can’t stick or confine, why should a woman? Dr. Shukla’s vision of man mayhave a deeper touch of sanctity, nobility and transcendental quest for the unknown but betraying a woman’s trust/ love, her primary need to be wanted, desired and loved, for this quest must not result in unhealthy practices in the working of this relation with enduring grace and dignity. The poet says:
“I cannot sacrifice my duties
They are larger than love
Their boundaries infinite
All women are islands
And so are you
But an island can only attract
It can never tame a man
Built for things nobler.
Let me look beyond you, beyond myself.
I am in love with jungles, deserts
That symbolize mysteries
Although I take care
My distribution otherwise
Does not make you sad.”
-All women are islands, p 32
The dilemma of the poet is well-expressed in “I coerce myself”, “Those who love are guilty of a sin”, “Something within me warns”, “But you pestered my peace”, “But this again was an illusion”, “If my soul craves for you” as the thorn in the flesh is running through veins and the uneasy mind seeks release and relief. His yearning and languishing can be fully discerned in his craving:
“If my soul craves for you
And the intimation reaches you in time
The duration of communication
Can offer us ‘Anand’
Nothing on this earth can.”
-If my soul craves for you, p 89
“I seek you because I am alone
Because I am incomplete
And you alone can assure
My loneliness can be cured
And my pathetic blanks be stocked.”
- I run only because there is a distance, p85
Sometimes the irony is that when a man loves a woman for something unexplainable, she feels puffed up and begins to jeer at love; the poets feels that constancy in relationship is an embellishment. So the poet says:
“Relationship springing from within
Is necessity of the soul
But spontaneity alone is not sufficient for its life
Unless honesty is our guide……..”
-We befriend people just for a change, p 53
Finally, we can say that Dr. Shukla has attempted to define the indefinable, love and its nature; the more he has scratches the skin and the head and the heart, the more rashes have appeared effacing and defacing the fair fair, the sublime sublime; the Light of lights, the glow Divine, wrought with human mind - so becoming a thorn in the flesh becoming before and leaving behind “A burning forehead and a parching tongue” (Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn). In the Foreword to the Second Volume of The Parrot Shrieks, the poet observes:
“As a matter of fact, the man-woman relationship includes the entire drama of human life, its sweetness, its bitterness, its joys and its despairs. Since woman is the most significant symbolic form of ‘Maya’, the man who is in serious relationship with her ultimately lives in the world, enjoys it, but is prepared to renounce it too.” Countless men have renounced and countless may do but no woman has ever done so. (These italics are mine).
Rudyard Kipling says in his poem - The Female of the Species is More Deadly than the Male - and intellectualizes the issue. Innumerable, gods and goddesses, saints and sages, dukes and duchesses, kings and queens, princes and princesses in all mythologies, literatures, history, folk literatures, Kissa Kavya etc have been stung or bitten by Lord Love throughout. What wonder if the ordinary mortals in the daily coarse course fall a prey irresistibly to this Lord of Thorns and fall because they do not know how to rise. Shukla has abundantly elaborated these ordinary mortals. He is delighted and spreads infectious gusto and rumbustious ecstasy for the thorn in the flesh to harmonize and soothe man-woman relationship and liberate it from the disturbing, debasing, perplexing and nauseating irritants but not those that sweeten this relationship. There is no self-condemnatory mood and self-torturing guilt anywhere in all moods and moments, passions, panting puffs though the parrot keeps shrieking:
“The parrot shrieks
The parrot cries
The parrot is a thing of entertainment for the dame
An illustration of her skill
Of her capability to tame
And keep him on crumbs.”
- The Parrot Shrieks, p59
The world would not have been as we see it, had there been no thorn and the world will go with this thorn! The poet’s philosophy of love is best expressed in excellent lyrical beauty in Love is not a lamb wherein he sings of the transcending virtue of love not a lamb, not a tiger, not a snake, not a cat but it is indefinable, illusive, abstract, trustworthy and so real:
He further says:
“Love is half of life
Love is an ambition to grow
It is a child yearning for its mother
To all the troublesome questions of life.”
-Love is not a lamb, p38
I shall conclude with a story of a man-woman race narrated by Master Aristophanes during the usual lively, enlightening, philosophical, metaphysical and moral discussion on love at a routine gathering of the Greek Masters. In his regaling wit, the comedy master said that God had created man-woman race in this world of ours. This race was so powerful that they decided to launch a spirited aggression on gods to recapture heaven. Gods smelt a rat and learnt about the invasion. The poor gods were so scared that they separated the man-woman race to save heavens as their habitat. Since then, men and women have been yearning and languishing to be united!
- Shukla, R.C: The Parrot Shrieks, Three Volumes (1-3); published by A Writers Workshop (as Redbird Book, HB & FB), Kolkata, Ed. 2003, 2005, 2008.
- Lawrence, D. H: Poems, Volume 1, with Introduction by V. de. S. Pinto, published by William Heinemann Ltd. Ed. 1964 and distributed by Heron Books.
- Praz, Mario: The Romantic Agony; published by Oxford University Press (Paperbacks), London, Ed. 1970.
- Young, Wayland: Eros Denied; published by Corgi Books, London; Ed.1964.
- Alexander, Peter: Edited with Introduction and Glossary, Shakespeare Complete Works; published by ELBS and Collins, London, Ed. 1965.
- Thomas & Thomas, HL and DL: Living Biographies of Great Philosophers; published by Bharati Vidya Bhawan, Bombay.