Our body functions like hormone release, body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, etc are caused due to Circadian rhythm which intern controlled by our biological clock. Circadian rhythms are responses of living beings for their surrounding environment, primarily to light and darkness. This rhythm follow a roughly 24 hours cycle and causes physical, mental and behavioral changes.
The biological clock of our body is situated in hypothalamus of brain. This clock is a group of nerve cells called suprachiasmatic nucleus, or SCN. The SCN controls secretion of hormone melatonin which makes us sleepy. When there is less light , the SCN sends signals to brain to secrete more melatonin. Thus the sleep and wake cycle are in rhythm with night and day.
Employees who work in shifts, especially at nights experience sleep disturbances due to disruption in biological clock and disturbance in Circadian rhythm. When these disturbances become chronic, the health of employees gets affected.
Shift Work Disorder
Employees who work in rotating shifts or exclusive night shifts experience "shift work disorder". Shift work disorder can lead to Insomnia or excessive sleepiness. This eventually leads to increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Psychiatric problems like anxiety and depression may be triggered due to sleep disturbances. Due to Circadian rhythm the digestive system is active in day and sluggish at night. Awaking at night, impairs digestion. Inadequate sleep and caffeinated drinks taken during night shift, aggravate the problems of digestive system. Acidity and ulcers are very common in employees, who work in night shifts.
According to principles of Ayurveda a good and timely sleep nourishes all tissues (dhatu poshana) and balances three doshas. This keeps our body healthy. Proper digestion and nourishment of body tissues boost body energy and helps to develop immunity to diseases. Altered sleep pattern vitiates vayu, which in turn cause degeneration of tissues and imbalance of doshas. Vayu which gets aggravated due to disturbed sleep dries up the tissues "ratrau jaagaranam rooksham".
The vitiated vayu causes the following condition.
Improper digestion or disturbances in digestion.
Either Insomnia or increased sleepiness.
Reduced concentration in work.
Premature aging which leads to dry skin, wrinkles, grey hair, hair loss etc.
Low sperm count and sperm motility.
Reduction in quality and quantity of semen.
Irregular menstrual cycle in women.
Tips to Reduce Health Hazards Due to Shift Work
Adjust your shift in a definite pattern like - day shift - evening shift - night shift. This slow transition in sleep pattern helps the biological clock to adjust itself for changing shifts.
Avoid consumption of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. This helps to retard ageing process and keeps the digestive system healthy.
Keep your work place brightly lit during night shifts. Use blackout blinds or heavy dark colored curtains to block sunlight when you sleep during the day.
Switch off your mobile phones when you sleep in day. Ask your family members not to disturb you.
Consume light food before leaving for night shift. Avoid junk foods and aerated drinks when you work.
Take warm shower before going to bed.
Drinking a glass of warm milk before going to bed helps to replenish nutrients and nourish tissues which have dried due to Vayu.
A complete body massage once in week with vata balancing herbal oil helps to reduce fatigue and prevents early aging symptoms like wrinkles, dry skin etc.
Massaging head with herbal oil helps to reduce hair loss and premature graying.
Try to spend around 30 minutes daily, for a brisk walk or light work out in gym.
Drink plenty of water to maintain water balance. This increases body moisture level and reduces effects of vitiated vata.