According to WHO standards the average volume of semen produced at ejaculation is 2ml to 5ml.
The condition hypospermia occurs when semen volume is constantly less than 1.5ml. This may be due to frequent ejaculations. Blockage, retrograde ejaculation or low level of testosterone can also cause hypospermia.
If volume of semen is persistently more than 5.5ml, the condition is known as hyperspermia and may occur after prolonged abstinence.
The semen consists of secretions from glands of reproductive system. The ejaculate consists of secretions from testicles, epididymes, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, bulbourethral glands and urethral glands. Seminal vesicles contribute 50 to 75% of the secretion. Testicles, epididymes, Bulbourethral and urethral glands contribute around 5 to 10 %. Secretions from prostate gland will be 20 to 30 %.
Secretions from Seminal Vesicles: Secretions from seminal vesicles constitute major portion of semen and are rich in fructose (simple sugar). Fructose is an essential nutrient which nourishes spermatozoa. The secretions of seminal vesicle contain a substance which helps in clotting of semen after ejaculation.
Secretions from Prostate gland: The secretions from prostate gland contain various chemicals and enzymes. The enzyme Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is very important. This acts as a catalyst in a biochemical reaction which causes liquefaction of clotted semen.
Secretions from Bulbourethral and urethral glands: The secretions of these glands lubricate the male reproductive tract. In some men secretions may contain anti sperm antibodies which harm motility of sperms and prevent sperms from fertilizing egg. This can affect fertility of men.
Semen Volume Ayurvedic View: According to principles of ayurveda, the semen is visible part of “Shukra dhatu”. Physiology of ayurveda mentions existence of seven dhatus or vital tissues in human body. Shukra dhatu is listed as seventh tissue. Tridoshas (vata, pitta and kapha) which reside in these dhatus control all the activities of these vital tissues. But tridoshas should be in balanced condition to help dhatus to carryout their normal functions. The shukra dhatu gets vitiated when balance of tridoshas residing in it get disturbed. This affects volume of semen to cause abnormal increase or decrease.
The volume of semen decreases, when vitiation of vata is more. The reason being, vata causes dryness in tissues.
When kapha dosha gets vitiated the volume of semen increases abnormally as kapha causes unusual increase of moisture level in tissues.
A reduction in physiological functions of dhatus occurs when body is poorly nourished. Thus volume of semen reduces when male reproductive system is under nourished. Ayurveda acharyas recommend Vajikarana preparations and aphrodisiac herbs to nourish male reproductive system. These herbs and preparations not only supply important nutrients to shukra dhatu but also normalize imbalanced doshas. This complete process is known as Vajikarana therapy. Vajikarana therapy helps to produce healthy semen containing healthy sperms.