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Kinds of Padaarthavaada
of Indian philosophical systems
|by Dr. Varanasi Ramabrahmam|
A cognitive science perspective
The word Padaartha, used as a technical term by different Indian schools of thought with different senses will be brought out. The meaning and intonation of the word Padaartha as used in the Upanishads, Brahmajnaana, Advaitha Philosophy, Sabdabrahma Siddhanta (Vyaakarana), the Shaddarshanas will be discussed. A comprehensive gist of this discussion will be presented relating to human consciousness, mind and their functions. The supplementary and complementary nature of these apparently “different” definitions will conform from cognitive science point of view in understanding and a modern scientific model of human cognition and communication, language acquisition and a brain modulation and demodulation model of human cognition / communication can be developed.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of how information is represented and transformed in the brain. It consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, learning sciences, linguistics, anthropology, sociology and education. It spans many levels of analysis, from low-level learning and decision mechanisms to high-level logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization.
This paper lists and correlates from cognitive science point of view such apparently ‘different’ usages of the same term padaartha; and a comprehensive outlook of various Indian spiritual (the Upanishads, Atmajnaana/Brahmajnaana, advaita philosophy, etc.,) and philosophical (shaddarshanas, sabdabrahma siddhanta – vyakarana) perceptions, insight, will be presented from cognitive science point of view. A brain-wave modulation/demodulation model of human cognition, communication and language acquisition and communication process based on Upanishadic expressions and Sabdabrahma Siddhhanta is also presented here. Brahma Jnaana or Atma Jnana is the basis of both Vedanta and Sabdabrahma Siddhanta.
Cognition insight from Brahmajnaana and other philosophical systems:
Naama roopa vinirmuktam yasmin samtisthate jagat
Meaning: The material / energy which is sans name and form, and in which the jagat - retrieved dynamic form of inner mental world - (the mental impressions of external physical world and the experiences caused by it as moods, experiences, senses, thoughts, feelings, utterances) is sustained - is called as prakruti by some; as maayaa by some; and as anoon by still some more.
Human cognition takes place sequentially in three stages and human communication takes place sequentially in the reverse order under the observation of human consciousness. Consciousness acts as non-transforming awareness - untouched, uninvolved seer, witness or observer - being present through the series and sequence of cognition and communication, playing the dual role of material (upaadaana kaarana) and instrumental cause (nimittakaarana). This is technically called padaartha by Upanishads, meaning that consciousness – the result of breathing process – is the source of energy / matter by / with which the cognition is made up of and carried through. Upanishads use the terms Brahma padaartha to signify, quantitatively and qualitatively, aatma sakti generated to create various phases of mind or conscious states of mind, which provide consciousness and in which mental functions are conducted and also mind ceases to function mentally. Vaisheshika, nyaya, saamkhya, yoga and vyaakarana also proposed cognition elements as padaarthas.
Naama bhaava vaasanaa rahita vastu padaarthaha iti, Brahmapadaartha [Upanishads/Brahmajnaana].
Atman or Brahma padaartha (both are one and the same - the term for human consciousness ) and Maayaa, the virtual reflected energy sourced from Atman / Brahman is the material / energy and its reversible transformations are responsible for the structure, function, and cessation of humand mind and its functions in four conscious states, jagrat (wakeful state - bahirmukha dristi), swapna ( dream state antarmukha dristi), sushupti and jagrat sushupti ( the last two are called visraanta dristi - the atman dristi during which phases of mind mental functions take place or cease to take place).
Padaartha is also used by Vaisheshika School of Shaddarshanas, and says:
Dravya-guna-karma-saamaanya-visesha-samavaayaaha - padaarthaas [Vaisesika – argues for the existence of the self from bodily functions/activities]. Abhaava is added later.
Validity of cognition is provided.
Pramaanaihi artha pareekshanam nyayaha.
Samkhya and Yoga:
Saamkhya – 24 – taanmaatraas –objective energy forms – 5; sense organs (jnaanendriyas) – 5; communication / action / reaction organs – 5; kinds of action by action organs- 5 (karmendriyaas); antahakaranas (manas. buddhi, ahamkaaram and chittam) – inner mental tools – 4 = 24
Pratyaksha, anumaana, aagamaaha pramaanaaha (Yoga Sutras).
These pramanas are taken from Nyaaya.
Uttara meemaamsa or Vedanta:
Vedaanta – 25; the above 24 proposed by Saamkhya and Consciousness/awareness = 25;
Vyaakarana – Sabdabrahma Siddhanta:
jaati, guna, kriya, yadruchcha
Sphota is the material / energy with which the four modes of language acquisition and communication - para, pasyanthi, madhyama, vaikhaari - are achieved. Sphota is same as maaya and pranava of advaita/dvaita system of thought (Brahmajnaana).
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