Oct 01, 2023
Oct 01, 2023
Every piece of writing has a beginning, middle and an end. In a typical medical original article the beginning corresponds to the introduction, the middle is the methods and results, and the end is the discussion. This structure is known as IMRAD structure - (Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion.)
Table of Contents (Optional)
Purpose: This part provides the reader with an outline of the research paper.
When present, it should be on a separate page and usually limited to one page titled `Table of Contents' or just `Contents'.
The list should include the heading of each section (Level 1), reference, and appendix along with their page numbers. If each part is divided into subsections, the heading of the major subsections (Level 2) can be listed as indentations.
Avoid listing headings of levels 3, 4 etc.
Purpose: This section states the major points of the paper and allows the reader to assess whether there is a further need to refer to any other part of the paper. It can also be used to search the particular field. It is a short description of the research paper, often within 200 words in a single paragraph. State the purpose of your research, the methodology used, the results obtained and the conclusions drawn thereupon.
This section presents the background knowledge necessary for the research and the objective of the study. It also explains the reason why the present research is an advance on the present knowledge in the field.
Steps to take: Review the available literature
Present the background of the research area. Review the literature to provide a broad context for the rationale of your research. Include only the information relevant to your research topic.
The next section of the paper is the methodology. Its purpose is to describe the materials used in the research and the methods by which it was carried out.
Purpose: This section allows the reader to evaluate the strengths and limitations of your study.
It also enables the reader to replicate a part or the entire method for a similar or different study.
Steps to take:
The third section is usually the results. The questions posed in the introduction are answered in this section.
Purpose: This section objectively presents your research findings (without interpretation) to the reader.
Steps to take:
Purpose: This section conveys the importance of your findings to the reader.
Steps to take:
Purpose: This section enables the reader to find the source of the material used in the document for further study.
List all the literature cited in the document. Formatting of this section is dealt in greater detail in the section on Citations and Bibliography.
Purpose: This section provides the reader information that is not included in the methods or results sections but may be required for better understanding of the paper. Such information could be raw data, lengthy questionnaires, large maps, and large tables. Include different information in separate appendices. Number each appendix with a Roman numeral. For example, Appendix I can contain raw data and Appendix II can contain a questionnaire.
Citations and Bibliography
The purpose of citations in a research paper is to attribute expressed ideas in a document to the original authors. The purpose of a bibliography/reference list is to enable the readers to find the source of the material used in a document for further study. All citations are listed in the bibliography. Refer to the appropriate style guide for proper formatting of citations and bibliography.
Footnotes and Endnotes
Sources can be cited using footnotes (placed at the bottom of the page) or endnotes (placed at the end of the document). Sequentially number the cited material in the text. Give details of the source as footnotes or endnotes. "A number of instances have been documented in which postlabelling of non-adducts can occur"
For in-text citations, use parenthetical referencing. Use the author's name and the year of publication (Phillips, 1997) or the page number (Phillips, 7). If the author is part of the sentence, only the year or page number is placed within parenthesis. For two authors, the names of the authors appear in the same order as in the cited document. For more than two authors, the names of all authors appear the first time the work is cited and subsequent references would be first author et al
"A number of instances have been documented in which post labeling of non-adducts can occur" (Phillips, 1997). According to Phillips (1997), "a number of instances have been documented in which post labeling of non-adducts can occur".
"A number of instances have been documented in which post labeling of non-adducts can occur"
Citations in the Bibliography/Reference can either be in the sequence of their first appearance (or) arranged alphabetically according to the first author's last name. If more than one document of the author is cited, they are then arranged by the year of publication. Refer to the appropriate style guides for formatting. The following examples of bibliographic citations are in the CBE (CSE) format.
Journal articles Author(s), year of publication, title of article, journal name, volume, issue, page numbers.
Books Author(s), year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, edition, place of publication, publisher, and page number.
Online sources Same as for journal articles/books. In addition, include date of retrieval and the URL.
It is the use of other people's ideas and/or language without acknowledging the original source. Anyone can recognize that turning in another person's work as one's own is plagiarism. However, it is not always easy to identify plagiarism. There is misunderstanding of when the line crosses from research to plagiarism. The popular Wilson Mizner's quote "copy from one, it's plagiarism; copy from two, it's research" is a case in point. Put all original text in quotes and cite the source(s) as close to the quote as possible. Even if the original text is paraphrased into one's own words, it is important to credit the source. Types of plagiarism are
Information that falls under common knowledge need not be cited. An example of such information is the fact that earth revolves around the sun.
More by : Dr. Sachin Khot
The article is too good, just keep it up.