Basti is preventive, promotive and curative therapeutic intervention as it is advised to undergo Bastikarma during Varsharutu as a part of seasonal purification to prevent the occurance of seasonal Vata disorders. Basti annihilates the Dosha, Mala by eliminating them out of the body, regulates the Vata dosha, cleanses the channels and enhances the tissue, prevents the occurance of the disease, promotes the health and cures the ailment.
Some of the Basti are particularly advised for promoting the health of the tissues. One such type is “Yapanabasti”.
It is the further progress in the field of Bastikarma specially designed to enhance status of Shukra, Mamsa, Bala ; to check the process of aging, to enhances the tissues the complications occurring due to the indulgence in sexual intercourse as well as to treat the male and female infertility (Cha. adhyaya and Chakrapani says “the superior type of Basti are described in this chapter”, this itself signifies their importance.
Meaning of Yapana:
Yapana refers to -
1) Sustaining of the life ( Su.Ni. 1/12).
2) Nourishment of the tissues ( Su.Su. 14/15).
3) Alleviation of diseases ( Su. Chi. 6/13).
4) Supporting and maintaining of the life ( Cha.Su. 18/19).
5) Reserving the homeostasis in the body constituents (Cha.Vi. 1/4 Chakrapani).
6) The checking of ageing process and enhancing the deprived tissues. (Su. Su.14/3 Dalhana)
Yapana is the measure wherein the process of are ageing is checked and the tissues are nourished and enhanced in order to sustain, support and maintain the life to have the homeostasis in the body constituents which inturn alleviate the disease.
Yapana refers to- Removal, Alleviation, Delay, Support, Maintenance.
It can be said that, the removal of the Dosha /Mala, alleviation of the disease, delaying the process of ageing and supporting the life by maintaining the homeostasis in the body constituents is Yapana.
The type of Basti which sustain, support maintain the life and provides longevity is called Yapanabasti.
Sushruta has described Yapanabasti as one of the synonym for Madhutailikabasti and the other synonyms are Yuktaratha and Siddhabasti.(Su. Chi. 35/17)
1) Madhutailika Basti: The Basti in which Madhu and Taila are the chief constituents or used in excess is called as Madhutailikabasti ( Su. Chi. 38/ 113). It is particularly indicated in king, the person of such tender nature, the women, the children, old person to remove the morbid dosha and to gain the strength and complexion, indicates its mrudu nature (Su.C38/95, 96 ). It does not require any regimens, may be given at any time, without complication and provides much more better results ( Su.Chi. 38/97,98)
2) Yuktaratha Basti : In this type of Basti there is no restriction regarding riding in ratha or on horse or elephant after the administration of this Basti (Su. Chi. 38/114)
3) Siddha Basti: In this type of Basti, drugs having Mrudu Virya are being used and it is used in 3/4th dose of the usual Niruhabasti and does not require any regimen of diet and living. It provides satisfactory results even by administration of single Basti and does not produce any complication. The name Siddha Basti is given from the fact that it provides success in large number of diseases and improves the strength and complexion of the body (Su. Chi. 38/15,117).
All these benefits mentioned for Madhutailika, Yuktaratha and Siddha Basti may be attributed to the Yapanabasti as it is considered as synonym of them.
Ingredients of the Yapanabasti –
1)Madhu and Sneha (Ghruta or Taila) is taken in equal quantity and in excess ( Cha. Si.12/16, Su.Chi.38/113)
2)Saindhav Lavana-It is taken in less quantity (Cha. Si. 12/16)
3)Kalka- Specific kalka dravya are mentioned in individual Yapanabasti.
4)Kwatha- Kshira is used for the preparation of Kwatha and Mamsarasa is added as Avapa.
Importance of Yapanabasti-
1) It performs both the functions viz Shodhana and Snehana (Cha. Si. 12/ 22) which is done by Niruha and Snehabasti respectively.
2) It is indicated in Swastha,Atura and Vruddha pointing towards its preventive, curative and promotive nature (Cha.Si. 12/20).
3) It can be administered in all the seasons at all the time and in all the age groups (Cha. Si. 12/21, 12/16).
4) No necessity of administration of Snehabasti in between and initially (As.Sa. Ka.5/26).
5) No necessity of prior Vamana and Virechana (Dalhana).
Indication: It is specially indicated in the following conditions.
Person indulging in excessive coitus (Ativyavaya)
Male and female infertility (Vandhyatva)
It is also advised in many other condition and number of diseases, particularly of degenerative nature by using specifc drugs in accordance with the condition.
Contraindication: No specific contraindication are described. Only Sushruta mentioned ‘Ajirna’ as a contraindication. The long term excessive use of Basti without consideration of the condition and state of agni, hampers the agni mainly and produces any of the following complications –Sopha, Agninasa, Pandutwa, Udarsula, Arsa, Parikartika, Jwara, Atisara (Cha.Si.12/30,31)
Management of the complication: To combat the above said complications Dipaniya drugs particularly in the form of Arista, Kshira, Sidhu etc should be used. Hence Yapanabasti should be used judiciously and not as a matter of habit (Cha. Si. 12/31,32)
Pathya: It is advised to take food with the milk medicated with Atmagupta, Sweta Gunja and Talamakhana during the course of Siddha Yapanabasti (A.H)
Apathya: To avoid certain Ahara and Vihara like- Vyayama, Maithuna, Madya, Madhu, Shita bhojana, Shita jal, Rathksobha ( Cha.)