Dec 11, 2023
Dec 11, 2023
The word Prameha is derived from the 'Mihasechane' which means watering. Pra means excess of urine in both frequency and volume. Prameha, thus, becomes self-explanatory and holds the twin meanings of "Prabhuthamutratha" or excessive urination and "Avilmutratha" or turbid urine.
A chronological study of the Ayurvedic classics and the samgraha texts shows changing trends of emphasis on its study and practice. It is very interesting to note the prameha has been described eloquently and elaborately in Charaksamhitachikisthasthana’s sixth chapter. In Shusuratasamhita it is found in nidanasthana’s sixth chapter and in Chikitshasthana’s 11th, 12th and 13th chapter. While Madavanidana describes it in its 33rd chapter, which is Pramehanidana.
Genetical view regarding prameha are clearly mentioned by Charaka and Shusuratasamhita. They have given a specific word 'Beejdosha' i.e., which means a “defect in genes” if transliterated to English. Beej means seed and dosha means defect. Charaka has described anatomy of beej as below:
Beej = Semen or Shukra
Beejbhaga = Chromosome
Sushrutha has said that kshetra, ambu, beeja and ritu are the four factors involving genetic factor of any diseases, and these mean:
Kshetra > Woman’s reproductive organs
Beej > Sperm
Ambu > Watery contents that gives nutrition to fetus
Ritu > Environment around the fertilized ovum or fetus
Also the physical and mental stages including dietary habits of pregnant lady can cause changes in the body of the offspring.
Ojas and Prameha
Ojas is essence of life, extract of all the dhatus (body tissue), which manifests in the form of bala (strength). Normally all the physical, psychic, sensory and motor functions are determined by ojas. The appearance of ojas is supposed to be like ghee (in purity and luster), taste is supposed to be like honey, and smell like fried paddy. In diabetes mellitus normal quantity of ojas in the body hampered in two ways:
i) By obstruction in vessels (Srotorodha)
ii) By degeneration of the body contents (Dhatukshaya)
Etiological Factors of Prameha
Purvarupa (Promodal) Symptoms of Prameha
They are as follows:
Types of Prameha
A) Hetu Bedhas (As per etiology)
1. Sahajaprameha : Juvenile or congenital diabetes
2. Kulaja : Familial
3. Apathyaja : Due to improper dietary habits
B) Deha Prakriti Bedhas (As per features of the body)
1. Sthulapramehi : Obese-related
2. Krishapramehi : Leanness-related
C) Mutra Bikara Bedhas (As per urinary abnormality)
1. Kaphaja :Kapha causes pramehas by affecting medhas thus altering lipid metabolism), muscles and body fluid situated in urinary bladder. They are of ten types as:
2. Pittaja : Pitta aggravated by hot things causes the same by affecting medas, muscles and body fluid situated in urinary bladder. They are of six types as :
3. Vataja :Vayu, on relative diminution of other two doshas, draws on the dhatus in urinary bladder and thus causes Prameha. Prameha caused by vata and associated with pain has blackish or reddish urine. They are of four types as:
Proteins: Intake of protein content should be normal i.e., 1gm/kg. In children it may be increased.
Fats: Fats should be moderate; excessive intake of fats forbidden.
Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate intake must be minimized in order to reduce blood sugar.
Calories: Total calories should be adequate for the growing children and underweight persons. In obese patients it might be necessary to reduce calories.
Minerals: Adequate amount should be supplied.
Vitamins: Vitamin-B complex group should be taken to prevent and treat polyneuritis.
Drinks: Sweet drinks and carbohydrate drinks should be avoided. Cakes, pastries, cream, dried and caned fruits, sweet pickles, and meats should be avoided.
Soups: Thin vegetable soups supply fewer calories. So obese persons are encouraged to take large quantities which would fill up their stomach and give them a sense of satiety.
Green vegetables: Diabetics should consume large amount of green vegetables, which are poor source of calories. Brinjals, spinach, and tomatoes can be consumed in plenty. Salads with lime or vinegar are useful.
Fruits: Dried fruits and nuts should be avoided, and so should be bananas and mangoes. Orange and apples can be taken.
Desserts: Sweets and ice cream or custard are not allowed.
Cooking media: Ghee, oils, butter all are rich in calories so an obese diabetic is allowed only 1 teaspoonful per meal.
More by : Dr. Amita Baliyan