Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, auditory hallucinations, confused or unclear thinking, inactivity, and reduced social engagement and emotional expression. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. Schizophrenia generally appears in late adolescence or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. It is one of many brain diseases that may include delusions, loss of personality (flat affect), confusion, agitation, social withdrawal, psychosis, and bizarre behaviour.
Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak periods for the onset of schizophrenia, critical years in a young adult's social and vocational development. In 40% of men and 23% of women diagnosed with schizophrenia, the condition manifested itself before the age of 19. To minimize the developmental disruption associated with schizophrenia, much work has recently been done to identify and treat the prodromal (pre-onset) phase of the illness, which has been detected up to 30 months before the onset of symptoms. Those who go on to develop schizophrenia may experience transient or self-limiting psychotic symptoms and the non-specific symptoms of social withdrawal, irritability, dysphoria, and clumsiness during the prodromal phase.
UNMAAD – According to ayurved unmaad is a manoroga . acharya charak told mano, budhi ,sangya ,gyan ,smriti ,bhakti sheel,chesta, aacahar,vibhram is found.
Causes of schizophrenia
A combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of schizophrenia. People with a family history of schizophrenia who have a transient psychosis have a 20–40% chance of being diagnosed one year later.
Symptoms of schizophrenia
The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three broad categories:
• positive symptoms,
• negative symptoms,
• and cognitive symptoms
Positive and Negative
Schizophrenia is often described in terms of positive and negative (or deficit) symptoms Positive symptoms are those that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactile, auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.Hallucinations are also typically related to the content of the delusional theme. Positive symptoms generally respond well to medication.
Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond less well to medication. They commonly include flat expressions orlittle emotion, poverty of speech, inability to experience pleasure, lack of desire to form relationships, and lack of motivation. Negative symptoms appear to contribute more to poor quality of life, functional ability, and the burden on others than do positive symptoms People with greater negative symptoms often have a history of poor adjustment before the onset of illness, and response to medication is often limited
Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors not seen in healthy people. People with positive symptoms often “lose touch” with reality. These symptoms can come and go. Sometimes they are severe and at other times hardly noticeable, depending on whether the individual is receiving treatment. They include the following: Hallucinations are things a person sees, hears, smells, or feels that no one else can see, hear, smell, or feel. “Voices” are the most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia. Many people with the disorder hear voices. The voices may talk to the person about his or her behavior, order the person to do things, or warn the person of danger. Sometimes the voices talk to each other.People with schizophrenia may hear voices for a long time before family and friends notice the problem. Other types of hallucinations include seeing people or objects that are not there, smelling odors that no one else detects, and feeling things like invisible fingers touching their bodies when no one is near. Delusions are false beliefs that are not part of the person’s culture and do not change. The person believes delusions even after other people prove that the beliefs are not true or logical.
People with schizophrenia can have delusions that seem bizarre, such as believing that neighbors can control their behaviour with magnetic waves. They may also believe that people on television are directing special messages to them, or that radio stations are broadcasting their thoughts aloud to others. Sometimes they believe they are someone else, such as a famous historical figure. They may have paranoid delusions and believe that others are trying to harm them, such as by cheating, harassing, poisoning, spying on, or plotting against them or the people they care about. These beliefs are called “delusions of When does schizophrenia start and who gets it? Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men tend to experience symptoms a little earlier than women. Most of the time, people do not get schizophrenia after age 45.3 Schizophrenia rarely occurs in children, but awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is increasing.4,5 It can be difficult to diagnose schizophrenia in teens. This is because the first signs can include a change of friends, a drop in grades, sleep problems, and irritability—behaviors that –are common among teens. A combination of factors can predict schizophrenia in up to 80 percent of youth who are at high risk of developing the illness.
In Ayurveda, Schizophrenia is called ‘Unmaad.’ Most doctors treat this illness in line with the presentation of symptoms. Patients who are excited or agitated are provided ‘counter-irritant’ treatment in the form of nasal drops. Vacha (Acorus calamus) in-the powder or oil type, Shigru (Moringa oleifera) seed powder, Marich (Piper nigrum), Tagar (Valeriana wallichii), Yashtimadhu (Glycerrhiza glabra), Hingu (Ferula narthex) and Shunthi (Zinziber officinale) + Jaggery are some of the medications used, often combined with ‘Puran Ghruta.’
After the patient is subdued, other treatments are started. Included in these are Sarpagandha (Raulwofia serpentina), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri), Ajwayan( Hyoscyamus niger), Suvarna Bhasma, Raupya Bhasma and Puran Ghruta. Various medicated ghrutas (ghee) are utilized orally, such as Panchagavya Ghruta, Kalyanak Ghruta, Brahmi Ghruta and Jatamansi Ghruta. Some physicians recommend the use of ‘Panchakarama’ techniques like induced nausea, induced purgation and medicated enemas.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, which primarily suppresses dopamine receptor activity. Counseling, job training and social rehabilitation are also important in treatment. In more serious cases—where there is risk to self or others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were
Ayurvedic medicine useful in schizaophreni –
a) sodhan (pancha karma )
b) saman(medicine )
• Swarna brahami vati
• Sarashwat churna
• Brahami grita (for paan and nashya )
• Vachadi grita
• Vachadi churna
• Jatamanshi churna
• Triphala churna