Mar 27, 2023
Mar 27, 2023
by T. A. Ramesh
In friendship both benefits and losses are shared equally; otherwise, it is not at all called as a friendship. The mutual sharing of both good and bad or joy and sorrow are not an obligation, but are a voluntary performance. In the modern world, friendship is developing a world culture, because it blossoms among peoples of different countries irrespective of their class, creed and colour. Apparently culture and friendship look to be two different things, yet culture develops upon friendship and friendship cherishes on culture.
Importance of Culture
Culture has various meanings to various persons and various countries. It is a study of perfection. It is knowing the best of everything and propagating such knowledge to the posterity. It is seeing the things as they really are and making truth prevail over everything. It is doing good to others, loving the neighbors, correcting the mistakes of others, clearing the confusion and reducing the miseries of mankind. It brings peace of mind and helps mankind to achieve spiritual perfection. Culture is taught to the people through classics, painting, music, dance, drama and literature. It is disseminated to all people through art. Every country has an independent culture of its own. These cultures put together into a single whole form the world culture.
Science provides the necessary aids to spread culture of a country to various parts of the world by means of Cinema, TV, CD, Internet connections, etc. These scientific gadgets help people easily understand other countries' life and activities, etiquettes and interests and aim and nature. This knowledge provides the necessary back ground for any person or persons to go to any other country or countries to do most beneficial and good deeds for one's own country and other countries. This is the aim of friendship through world culture. The expression of cultural ideas may be differing from place to place, but the central idea of all the cultures is concerned with human nature only. The internal harmony of the people depends upon the world harmony. Through the world culture by fulfilling the external needs of the people, the world harmony can be achieved.
Due to the friendship between nations the benefits to the people are many. Many authors like S. Radhakrishnan, Bertrand Russell and Aldous Huxley have written much about the world community, the world government and the modern utopia to bring about the world harmony. They all have supported the view that education, friendship and culture are essential and very important for a good life. It is clear to note that for a good life people are in need of good education, friends, love, good health, sufficient income, congenial society and favorable government. How can world culture fulfill these needs of the people?
These needs are the reasonable ones for any individual and are the common need of all the people. A world organization has the capacity to solve this general problem. We have United Nations Organization (UNO), through which these needs could be fulfilled. It is the joint venture of all the nations on the basis of friendship.
The United Nations Organization has to intensify cultural programs to bring yet closer the nations that are members in it. By diverting the attention of the nations towards the world culture, the thought of war, hatred, fear and competition can be thwarted. In the name of friendship all the nations should be involved in responsible creative activities with a view to solve totally the problems like poverty, disease and ignorance. It should arrange educational programs to give training to all the citizens of the world in Agriculture and Industries, should develop the particular talents of the individuals in Science and Arts and utilize them in the creative direction. This could be the aim of the world culture through friendship in the modern age.
The concept of friendship that it is a chosen entanglement on agreeable terms among likeminded individuals or nations holds good since time immemorial. From the individuals to the nations this concept is of much use. If an organization is able to perform the duties of a friendship well irrespective of like mindedness, then the world will certainly become a cultured and civilized one. The more the world organization like the UNO improves the world culture the more developments will take place upon friendship and make the world a better place to live.
Everyone was eagerly expecting the formation of European Union at that time. As far as culture, literature, religion and civilization are concerned there is not much difference between one state and other state in Europe. There is much cooperation and coordination in all the fields because of their similarity of attitudes in many matters. The West Europe is economically and technologically far developed when compared with their counter part, the East Europe. Slight language differences are there. Already the European Council, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and other institutions were there that were providing necessary checks and balances and due to this European consciousness had developed to such an extent that Europeans were ready to forego their national sovereignty or national identity in the formation of European Union.
In 1990 the unification of West Germany and East Germany into one Germany after pulling down the Wall of Berlin has increased European consciousness very much. The member countries of the European Union such as Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Great Britain met very often to discuss about the ways and means by which the European Union could be effectively established
Nuclear Weapons in the hands of Terrorists
In one way it seems that the fate of mankind is in the hands of the Islamic Countries like Libya, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, etc., China, Israel and North Korea. It looks quite grim and horrible if we imagine a little about what will happen if the Nuclear Weapons are in the hands of the terrorists, especially with the Islamic Countries, Israel and North Korea. Certainly it will produce night mare to anyone; or everyone should be prepared to die if a great Nuclear War breaks out in the world. Therefore the solution will be that care must be taken to stop the production of Atomic Bombs or arrest the capability to produce such arsenals whichever be the country by the united efforts of all the peace loving countries in the world.
Already both for good and bad the feeling of Islamic brotherhood has united the Muslim countries into one. But their culture, faith and thoughts are not in accordance with the modern world trend, Eastern culture and Western civilization. Though other religions of the world have under gone a lot of changes and made reforms, only Islamic religion has not met with such changes and made reforms that keep Muslim people separate from other community peoples everywhere. This trend must be changed with realization by themselves or otherwise so that they would avert animosities and enmities among themselves and with others. Instead because of their dislike towards western culture, especially American domination, strength and technological advancements they in Iran, Iraq, etc. raise hot slogans and are even ready to manufacture Islamic Bombs to fight against their common enemy if possible and the necessity arises at anytime in the future!
World War III
If the Afghanistan extremists belonging to the Taliban group again take control of the full country and if a nexus between them and the neighbouring Islamic countries like Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, etc. develops on the basis of a Holy War for the faith called Jihad as said in Koran fructifying in the minds of the hard core Islamic fundamentalists, there is every chance for a Religious War occurring in Africa, Europe and Asia leading to a Third World War between Muslims, Christians and other religious people of the world in the near future. This has to be carefully noted by all the leaders of the world controlling the world affairs in a peaceful way and checks have to be made on the subversive activities of the religious perverts now itself so that the Future World War can be thwarted in the beginning stage itself.
Conversion to Communism against World State
Another danger is if the union among China, North Korea and Cuba develops on the basis of promoting communism in the world and thereby they happen to produce Atomic Bombs for that purpose they could use them in war with neighbouring capitalist countries leading to chaos and unwanted developments on a large scale in the world which will not be in the interest of the modern thinkers of the World Union or World State for the future well being of the world people. Therefore this kind of activity also needs checks now.
Best Course of Action
The best course of action for solving the problems of the world lies in the creation of One World so that peace and prosperity can be achieved for all. For that the States of world where dictatorship rule or communist form of govt. prevails have to be democratized. To stop the future wars, the attention of the countries should be diverted towards solving the greater problems like pollution of environment and exploitation of natural resources and should be directed towards eradicating diseases like cancer, diabetes, AIDS and skin and eye diseases caused by the ultra violet rays of the sun through the Hole in the atmosphere due to air pollution by industrial smokes, etc. Further joint programs of Space exploration by USA, Russia, Europe, India, Japan, etc. can be planned and implemented in an organized way if the World State is created.
The probable moves for the creation of One World State could then be:
1. The idea of One Europe should be achieved;
2. Next, the Russian dream of One European Home can be achieved by uniting One Europe with Asia; and
3. If such an effort is extended to other countries of the world with the initiation of USA and UNO, World Union can very well be achieved soon!
World State by Democracy, Unity in Diversity
If naturally all are equal in all respects the unity of the world and the creation of one single world state could have been achieved long, long ago. But naturally there is variety and diversity (of talent, genius, ability, capacity, personality, character, etc.) among the people of the world. That is why though it may be welcomed that all are equal before law and that equal opportunities for all could be provided for education and job, in reality economically, socially and physically equality is not possible. Therefore only by cooperation, coordination and coexistence without the interference in the internal affairs of others unity in diversity is possible and that is the way the creation of one single world state is possible.
Further any social system or form of government that does not support or give importance to freedom, love, justice and creativity will not have popular support and will not be desirable meet with failure. This means that only democratic system is the best and desirable means by which anything worthwhile can be achieved in the world and for the world.
World Union: the Desire of Everyone
In all the fields of research for knowledge human craving is for unity and whole truth. In religion the talk is about unity, love and international brotherhood. Philosophy reveals that the whole truth is the synthesis of everything. Literature expresses that with the unity of love and knowledge harmonious human perfection is achieved. Science infers that all matters are interdependent in the Universe. Perhaps due to these facts the age old proverb that says that 'united we stand divided we fall' must have come into effect. Therefore the creation of a single world state depends upon the unity of the world.
As in Nature for every event or effect to take place in the world there must be some cause. In that respect to bring about the unity of the world what cause (or causes) there could be has to be explored next, though there are differences and diversity as far as language, religion, class, regionalism, colour, culture, etc. are concerned. Before the Cold War between America and Russia began so many views from the intellectuals of the world came up regarding the creation of One World Government. Among them the ideas and opinions of H.G. Wells, Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell and Aldous Huxley are quite interesting to read and thought provoking in the right direction.
Military Power and Political Power Not the Solution
After the Second World War sophisticated Nuclear Arms building competition began between USA (including Britain and France in the West) and USSR (including China and others in the East) as a result of mistrust, fear and suspicion of one over the other creating Cold War to such an extent that Third World War itself could have come but fortunately after George Bush became the President of USA and Mikhail Gorbachev became the Premier of USSR, production of Nuclear Weapons and Cold War stopped with a firm view to reduce and destroy all Nuclear Weapons one day knowing pretty well that Nuclear War means destruction of the whole world and not victory of anyone over others.
Therefore the possibility of one Super Power having more Nuclear Weapons than others with an egoistic leader having soaring ambition like Alexander or Napoleon or Hitler defeating all the countries of the world victoriously by direct military force and forming a World Government cannot be thought about and cannot be successful too.
Then the second possibility of establishing One World Government by the threat of force using some political philosophy like communism or socialism under the disguise that imperialism or capitalism would depress, oppress and suppress the working, suffering, poor and downtrodden people of the world by effective brain-washing propaganda as tried by Russia, China and Cuba only to meet with total failure would not be liked by anyone now or in the future as the true color of all the political philosophies are well known to the world men now due to the popularity of various world news media today.
Therefore immediately by force or by threat of force using military power and political propaganda One World Government cannot be established, but only by the friendship of all nations on the basis of world democracy in a slow transition.
Democratization Is the Way
Now the hopeful sign of unification of nations under one system is the process of democratization which has recently started in the communist or socialist States like Russia and its Satellite States due to the bitter social awareness of the horrible dictatorial rule there and also of the knowledge got from the world news of the democratic States that gives highest importance and priority to social justice, security, liberty, equality, fraternity and right to think, speak and express anything and everything or best and wonderful things in researches, creative and inventive works for the benefit and satisfaction of the individuals as well as humanity.
However the drawback of democracy in some of the countries is freedom without discipline due to lack of up gradation of laws according to the developments and changes occurring there and thereby leadership is losing control over the mass there and also due to the cultural vacuum increasing largely as a consequence of developing civilization as per the scientific advances taking place there, which can be rectified by the introduction of cultural aspects in education and popularization of such matters in the society through books, magazines and TV programs by intellectuals and workers for humanity.
But whatever be the defect of democracy only democratic form of government, of all the forms of government in the world, has choice and is suitable for all types of people anywhere, because in this set up only selfless intellectuals who have serenity of soul without oscillation of mind and with wisdom can express freely, frankly and fearlessly in their writings in books, magazines, in their speeches in the TV programs and social organizations opinions that could change the attitude of the people in the right direction. Then only it will be possible for the people to decide whether 'the conquests of Nature and the accessions of knowledge are to be used for creating frightful and inhuman ends or for creating the kind of progress' or Utopia everyone dreams about as opined by Aldous Huxley on The World's Future in his book, HUMAN SITUATION while referring to the prediction of Leo Tolstoy.
Possible Transition to One World
After analyzing the facts the conclusion we arrive at will be perhaps one of the three possibilities left for the transition of the world in the future as envisaged by Bertrand Russell and Dr. Harrison Brown and endorsed by Aldous Huxley. The transition of the world may take place either by force or by democratic means, where there will be either “a worldwide industrial civilization completely controlled by a totalitarian authority,” which will not be acceptable by many or “a worldwide free industrial society devoted to the full developments of human beings.” Otherwise after getting fed up with the modern industries, machines, computers and fast moving vehicles, etc. people may wish to live a pastoral way of life in Nature in order to overcome night mares and to get peace of mind the world may revert to “an agrarian State within the next thousand years or so, provided we escape war!” But how far this speculative knowledge is true or false future only has to decide!
One World by Disarmament and Peace
All human beings naturally have human rights to live anywhere, love anyone and die as they like, to enquire anything to know the truth and have freedom to think, express and do as they wish according to natural justice. Accordingly the constitution of nations should provide to their people individual liberty, human rights and freedom of thought, speech and action. Also every nation should adopt democratic form of government to rule its people.
It is also not justified for any nation to suppress, oppress and depress its own people and people of other nations on the basis of nationalism, religion, politics, economy, military power, science and technology, class, color, caste and race. All human beings are part of humanity living on one Earth under one sky sharing air, water and food available everywhere in order to share love, knowledge, ideas, views and opinions both creative and inventive in nature with others for the well being of the whole world. For that, demarcation of borders should be deleted and road, rail, air and sea routes should be established for the free movements of people, goods and ideas across the globe.
Means to Achieve the Goals
To implement these goals, first disarmament and destruction of nuclear weapons, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction are necessary as they are deadly dangerous and certainly harmful to the whole of mankind and the world. Some of the nuclear weapons may be kept cautiously in store under the strict security control of UNO for using them to explode Asteroids that may come in large numbers and sizes from Space and hit the Earth in the future resulting in possible mass destruction of the Earth. Also, from the dismantled nuclear weapons, the nuclear chemicals like thorium, uranium and plutonium may be removed for using them in the Nuclear Power Stations for generating electricity necessary for the public and private consumptions in machines, equipments and various appliances in industries and homes.
Second, by cooperation ad coordination among nations for developments in various fields like industries, agriculture, education, trade and tourism friendship can be developed among world people. Third, by following the principles of non-aggression, non-interference and non-violence in the internal affairs of other nations, peaceful coexistence among nations can be established. Fourth, in that way the world unity can be concretized leading towards the formation of world union or One Human World, which is the most cherished dream of many peace loving people, intellectuals and leaders from time immemorial.
The socio-economic status of the people did not develop as was envisaged due to the failures of communism and socialism in Russia, its satellite States in Asia, East Europe, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Cuba and others countries of the world. So, these countries raised their iron curtains to try their efforts in the wide open green pastures of the world after getting pleased with the developments of the Western Countries. Many nations started making reforms resulting in the liberalization, privatization and globalization of their economies. Globalization of economy integrated many nations with the world market. Individual skills, entrepreneurship and quality of goods were neglected in the socialist nations, whose projects failed due to strikes by workers’ unions, neglect of duties by their employees and widespread corruption everywhere. But globalization has encouraged competition, improved quality of goods ad introduced work culture, which were previously lacking in many countries.
The main criticism regarding globalization is that it has made the rich richer and the poor poorer. So, the displeased people of the socialist brand are raising hue and cry through the World Social Forum now and then. This does not mean that globalization has solved all the problems of the individual and society. There are examples of many fraudulent companies that have come up exploiting the innocent people due to bureaucracy that thrives on corruption everywhere that has to be properly dealt with by the strong arms of vigilance with the cooperation of the government and the people. The opportunities for jobs have increased for persons of high qualifications and entrepreneurial abilities because of globalization. There are pros and cons for everything in the world. So, as said by the former President of France Jacques Chirac that democracies need not be mere spectators of globalization; but it has to be tamed, controlled and taken advantage of by them.
After the end of the 20th century, 12 European countries that were merely a common wealth economic entity transformed into a European Union [EU] capable of taking unanimous decisions on political, strategic and foreign matters. After the year 2000, European Union has increased its member nations to 15. Between the years 2004 and 2007, 10 more East European countries like Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania, etc. have joined the Union. So, the expansion of EU is slowly taking place towards the East. The European Union has created a single coin called, Euro for its circulation; it has adopted a common language, English for communication purpose; it is framing common laws also for solving the problems before them; and has already a common security system called as North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO] for their defense against invasions from other countries. So, European Union has become so strong that it need not depend upon USA for its defense.
EU takes unanimous policy decisions for promoting peace, friendship and developmental activities with other nations of the world in order to make progress with them in various fields by cooperation and coordination. It seems, seeing the smooth functioning of the Union of European countries many groups of nations are planning to form unions on the model of European Union in the near future. Accordingly in 2002 the union of the African countries has transformed itself into African Union on the model of EU. This is a healthy trend towards the development of world unity that may lead to the formation of a New World Order in the future with the cooperation and coordination of all nations on the basis of friendship for the promotion of world peace, unity, brotherhood and progress of mankind as a whole in all walks of human life.
Further, the year 2002 was remarkable because of important and interesting summit meetings of various groups of nations that took place in Kazakhstan, Nepal, Thailand, Canada, South Africa and Malaysia. In all the meetings, international terrorism was opposed, wide range of discussions took place on world peace, global economy, elimination of poverty, socio-economic developments in poor countries of Africa, cooperation and coordination in trade, industries, communication and tourism.
In the Almaty meeting of Kazakhstan peace, friendship and development were highlighted towards the formation of a Central Asian federation. In the G-8 summit meeting of Canada, good governance in Africa and democratization of nations in a New World Order for the future were discussed in detail. In the Thailand conference peace, unity and revival of cultural ties of the past among the South Asian countries along with trade and tourism were discussed in detail. In the Malaysian conference of South Asian countries the importance of UNO, the formation of a new world order, anti-war, non-aggression and other matters were talked about in one voice.
As in the 2003 Non Aligned Movement countries meeting, disarmament and non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons with the initiation of international community were the unanimous outcome of its member nations as the world was sick of past wars and were very much interested only in peaceful resolution of disputes between nations through the UNO. Realizing dense war clouds hovering over Iraq, even in the beginning of 2003 itself there was widespread campaigns against war and for peace being conducted by people in large numbers not only in European countries, Japan and other Asian countries but also in UK and USA. This means that world people are fed up with wars; they cannot tolerate to see wars even in TV and Cinema any longer, but love very much world peace and esteem high world unity with great anticipation under the auspices of UNO more now than before.
Man of One Book
There is no purpose in the life of an animal. Animals don’t have rationality, obligations and responsibilities. Animals live by instinct in the forest under the control of nature. But man distinguishes himself by rationality, morality, nobility, culture, civilization, knowledge and achievements. Generally man lives by culture following a routine in the life of the world. But because of scientific developments in various fields civilization has taken up the upper hand over culture. In the modern world, due to developments in various fields, everything is compartmentalized taken care of by experts or specialists in all walks of life.
Even in the field of computer, there are hardware specialists, software specialists, programmers, etc., who only can rectify the mistakes or solve the problems in the particular branch of the field. So also in the field of medical treatment of diseases, there are specialists for body, brain, nerves, kidney, heart, etc., who only can cure illnesses connected with them. But nobody says that he is the best or the top most in those field, because of professional maturity. However, the main problem today is due to men of one book only who talk, support and fight endlessly based on that particular knowledge only with out bothering about the knowledge of other books and also don’t update themselves any longer.
Necessity of Human Culture
The result is that the world is dominated by men of politics, religion and science. The danger lies in the science with its destructive developments caught in the hands of politicians and religionists, who fight against each other bothering about neither the people, for whom they are working they say nor the existence of the human world in the future including themselves. So, men of one book are generally mad, from whom saving the world is a big problem today.
Realization should dawn upon everyone that peace, prosperity and progress can be achieved only by united efforts of all as each one is interdependent in the world for survival and sustenance forever. This means that only by harmonious human development love, knowledge, perfection, joy, peace and satisfaction could be achieved in life, which could be possible not by politics alone or religion alone or science alone but only by human culture which connects science and literature, politics and religion, love and knowledge, beauty and truth, body and mind, and matter and spirit into one.
Without knowing this truth like man of one book, politicians and religionists are fighting with one another somehow to try to unite mankind by the imposition or preaching of their ideas in order to fulfil their ambition or missions in the world. That is why they are not able to create one world order so far, even after hundreds of year. Politicians or religionists like a man of one book are subjective in their approach to social matters, which is uninteresting to the people and so, without the over whelming support of the people, they are unable to succeed in their ventures. Therefore leaders of human culture like the men of general knowledge having concern for all the maters of human interest only can create interest in the people of the world with their objective approach and succeed creating One Human World at last leading towards the formation One World Government by democracy that provides freedom, rights and moral justice to everyone allowing possible natural human development towards perfection through the combination of beauty and truth, sweetness and light, body and mind, and matter and spirit.
One Human World by Human Culture
Realizations regarding the harmful developments of the world should dawn upon every nation in the world. To solve all the problems and achieve social justice, the creation of One Human World is necessary, which is possible only by human culture and not by politics or religion or science and technology alone. Politics, science and religion have harmed much and not united but only divided mankind and confined the people in various circles according to their natures. So, there are clashes and conflicts between rivals on the basis of class, colour, community, race, religion and language that are magnified and perpetrated by politicians for the advantages and benefits of their leaders.
Light of truth or knowledge only can save the people from darkness. As said by the spiritual philosopher J. Krishnamurti, people should come out of the circles they belong to and see from above so that they can see the things as they really are. Love and hate are part of life. Hatred divides, but love unities the people. So, hatred for small or petty causes should be dropped and love for a broad cause should be cultivated for human progress in life.
For that human culture, which is the love of, study of and pursuit of human perfection, is the best course to follow in the life of the world both for the individuals and the society at large. So, leaders of human culture like the persons of general knowledge, who have interest in everything, can understand human complexity and unite mankind under human culture, which is the means by which One Human World can be established for the benefit and well being of humankind.
One World Family
It is a fact that man's needs such as food, clothing, shelter, education, employment, intellectual pursuits and spiritual fulfilment can be achieved only by world peace, unity in diversity, love of all living beings and international brotherhood as preached by all the religions of the world but not by indifference, hatred, divisions and wars. It is true as said by Dr. G.P. Gough in the foreword to Steinberg's Historical Tables that “peoples are connected with one another by a network of contacts and obligations, visible and invisible. Every one of us is a citizen of the world; each nation is a branch of the human race. Geographical, racial and linguistic barriers blur, but cannot destroy the fundamental unity of mankind.”
On a larger scale this truth is also confirmed by Advaita Vedanta philosophy by its main conclusion that “there is a fundamental unity in this Universe and this basic unity interconnects all matters, mind and consciousness.” In short, Hinduism simply says by the term, Vasudaiv Kudumbakam that the world is one family. So, if the thoughts, ideas and dreams of the intellectuals, mystics and seers cherished much by many from time immemorial are implemented by the joint efforts of the peace loving leaders and people of the world, surely One Human World can be translated into a reality soon!
Way to Achieve the Dream
As suggested by H.G. Wells in his writings it is in the hands of the intellectuals to make the people familiar with and accept the idea of One World and prepare them to work with one mind to achieve that wonderful goal. The transition of the world into One World State with World Parliament, law, security, etc. is indeed a long process thing. By regular propaganda of this idea in TV, Radio, newspapers, magazines, books, Clubs and the public which are the catalyst that could effectively quicken the process of transition.
To overcome the threats of Atomic Bombs, Terrorism, corruption and Money Power and nationalism, fundamentalism, communalism, racism, hegemony, regionalism, etc. of the negative kind that encourage disunity, anarchy, violence, chaos and destruction should be exposed to the people of their harmful and evil designs and their futility to achieve anything worthwhile so far and so forth through the world communication and information media and the message regarding the importance of unity, non-violence, cooperation, coordination and coexistence that are developing a sense of international culture or internationalism among the peoples of the nations should be extensively and effectively informed and widely popularized in the world. In that direction internationally minded people may welcome and should encourage through United Nations Organization the exchange of views, ideas and knowledge of this kind apart from the other branches of it.
It is better done well than said in wonderful words. So, what is needed now and what has to be done immediately have to be seen next. The will governed by a firm conviction as strong as a religious faith that gives hope, freedom, courage, happiness and peace is what needed now to achieve that goal.
In this regard the realized views and suggestions of Albert Einstein are most suitable to quote here and are useful for immediate action by the powerful nations of the world; they are - “There is no other possibility....; systematic disarmament (handing over all Atomic Weapons to a single international authority, One World security like UNO) connected with supranational government (One World Government, i.e. UNO)... The will to peace and the readiness to accept every step needed for this goal are most important. We should strive to do things in his (Gandhi's) spirit not to use violence in fighting for our cause, but by non-participation is what we believe is evil.”
More by : T. A. Ramesh