Philosophy of Language

Let us examine knowledge and its functions as well as its capacities and dimensions. Knowledge requires a platform to operate, which called language. As a beginning, will it not be easy to explore what we speak and write? How do we acquire linguistic skills? Is not the word an abstract entity all by itself? Finally, are we using the word or used by it?

To think of thinking is the need of the day, but do we know what thinking is or do away by the process itself? Word is a window to its knowledge and feelings generated. The teacher and taught, without two elements there is neither education nor the world we visualize. The same gap is from word to real, since the word apple is not real, so the gap is the problem. To solve this problem are we not creating innumerable problems? Simply we say that the problem lies in one’s own perception, alternatively the world we experience.

Do we aware of the functioning of linguistic patterns or just carried away by presumptions and assumptions, which are part of linguistic ideology? It is surprising to note that all philosophical statements are logical derivations. Logic based on two, one is constant and the other is variable. Out of these we derive, the third, which is a name, imposed on real. Name – its image – feeling – idea, the steps we call functioning of language. Linguistic operation is three dimensional in its volume, directional, and dynamic in its character. Is it not the whole of the intellect, which we carry all the time with different names, such as mind, heart, consciousness, inner world etc?

Knowledge is the outcome of interactive principle which is result oriented in its conceptual form. Therefore, concept drives humans to its result. However voluminous in its stature and predictive in its character still it is partial and indirect by its nature. The relational arrangement between nouns – verb – tense is the relational attitude between subject and object. This relation may be rational or irrational. Opposites ingrained in language, so pessimism verses optimism, order – disorder, theism – atheism, and so on rooted in language but not anywhere in nature. Essentially languages constructed for memorizing past events and experiences so to refine them in present. Even the refined state of consciousness is inadequate to meet the present. Therefore, there is continuous strife for better knowledge in the world in which we live. By its very inception, knowledge is divisive phenomena hence can offer division only. It is the witness to its own activity, which is the reason of its expansion. These are the grounding factors for conceivable reality and experience. Memory is past and functioning in present and projects the future project.

It is clear that the trio Knower – Known – Knowledge is all past and time bound. If there is no transformation to intelligence, this knowledge remains a mere tin. Formulas require explanation. Explanation may be in the shape of a song, dance, and drama but there is every chance of deriving mythical ideology, so to save from this kind of diversions, there is philosophical enquiry. Enquiry is full of logic, which is based on mathematics, when not used in conjunction of subject, express disastrous and conflicting statement

Knowledge is a cluster of statements. Essence of accumulated knowledge is called as intuition, which instigate, How? Word as is an image and its produced image is mounted upon primary image. Two lifeless images are interacting because of sound.

The whole of thought process depends on calculation. Movement of thought is calculation, but only factual but not real. Natural intelligence is covered by accrued intellect like fire is covered by smoke, mirror is covered by dust, but smoke is taken for granted as fire. Since there is no clear distinction between factuality and reality, all suffocated ideas are expressed as real. Ignorance verses intelligence, these two opposites are responsible for tons of literature. Phenomenal approach to language may solve problems since it deals with what we see, hear, feel etc., in contrast to what may be real and true about the world we feel and live.

We have to bear in mind that we are exploring virtual world, otherwise known as linguistic knowledge, which has a fraction of relation with the real. This relation is only with image, which we get out of sound. Sound and touch are the basic ingredients to formulate a picture. Our so-called mind is nothing but the analysis of these pictures. Here we are not going to propose any new idea or concept but investigating the gifted knowledge from our ancestors and trying to find out its relative strength, which we inherit as a language. So let us begin with our own mother tongue, which we learn in the form of a song, story, an epic, or sayings, which stand as a translator throughout the rest of our lives. We call this translator as mind, heart, etc. We live in a pluralistic world which in fact is not real but a virtual one, which is also called Maya (Sanskrit).

Belief plays a vital role in our lives, without which, we cannot even imagine. Thus, derived imagination is the stepping-stone for entire human activity. Language is not as simple as it appears to be. Arranged relation between sound and symbol and their picture is thought and its provocation, now the question is whether it would be possible to examine this invisible provocation? If so, then with what?

Relation with a mirror is the same with a language. Whatever formulae, theories, explanations, and concepts thus derived are only limited to those images which help our movement both inside and outside. Habituated to live in a conceptual environment, without which we feel homeless. Yet we talk of mukthi, moksha, freedom etc. This we may call self-deception. Education through a language advocated since eons. Veda (Sanskrit) means to know and this functions over two, one is (memory) smrithi and the other is sruthi (order of sound) but both are invisible. Therefore, there are different names for the outcome of combinations and permutations. Unfortunately, we hang on to these names. All invisible feelings are generated in-between two images, one is of self and the other is of the object, and the activity continues forever until there is true enquiry. Then only knowledge acquired can function in a sane order.

Kumarila Bhattu (Vedic exponent) said that words convey their own meanings, not related to something else. Descriptive sentences are significant. Sentence meaning as composed of separate word meanings held together in a relational structure. Word meaning formed is the simplest unit of sense. Persons thus learn the meaning of words by seeing others talking as well as from advice of elders.

Mandan Misra said that phenomenal distinctions are unreal and appearance of immutable word essence.

K Langer said that language is only means of articulating thought. Essential act of thought is symbolization. World of humans made of symbol and its meaning.

Prabhakara said that all knowledge is verbal which is inferential in its character.

Huxley said that we sin by attributing concrete significance to meaningless pseudo knowledge as real understanding. We are amphibians living simultaneously in the world of experience and the world of notions.

Sankhya Philosophy explains that the language is the base of intellectual games we play with ourselves. It is responsible for the division of Seer – Seen which is an egocentric ideology. This virtual reality is the cause and its effect of illusion.

Patanjali Yoga describes that two different feelings like pain and pleasure never occur simultaneously. Inference we derive out of a paragraph is only feeling.

Poorva Meemamsa said every symbol is a picture and its experience is seer. Entire linguistic pattern is only indicative. So the index and indicated are images. Combinations of several meanings of words are the meaning of a paragraph.

Goudapada (mandookya karikalu) explained that cause and its effect are interdependent and prone to change.

Sankara Acharya said that group of symbols is a word and expression of these words is creation. However, mature logical ideology may be still it is partial and different from the real. Negation of all psychological impressions is to be wise.

Panini (Creator of Sanskrit grammar) warned to check phonetics to understand the cause of difference in time. Sound is traveling in the human body in the shape of symbol. Totality of A to Z is self and its practices.

Jiddu Krishna Murthy said that word is not the real thing.

Nagarjuna said that the experience and reason do not give us genuine knowledge.

Ramanuja said that we could not prove the existence of an object without attributing, even in case of self-consciousness and in the object of intuition.

Wittgenstien said that main source of our failure to understand is that we do not command a clear view of the use of our words.

Vidyaranya (panchadasi) Because of verbal sounds we get pictures of existing objects and a doubt. This happens even when there is no object.

What we are destroying is the house of cards and clearing the ground on which they stand. Philosophy does not result in propositions, but rather in clarifying them. The end of language is the end of human world.


More by :  Goteti Rao

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