During the late 16th and 17th centuries in France, male impotence was considered a crime, as well as legal grounds for a divorce. The practice, which involved inspection of the complainants by court experts, was declared obscene in 1677.
1. Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity. Erectile dysfunction can have psychological consequences as it can be tied to relationship difficulties and self-image.
2. Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen soon after sexual activity and with minimal penile stimulation. It has also been called early ejaculation, rapid ejaculation, rapid climax, premature climax and (historically) ejaculation praecox. There is no uniform cut-off defining "premature", but a consensus of experts at the International Society for Sexual Medicine endorsed a definition of around one minute after penetration. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) applies a cut-off of 15 seconds from the beginning of sexual intercourse.
The most important organic causes of impotence are
— cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery),
— Hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism)
— Drug side effects.
— Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but can often be helped. In psychological impotence, there is a strong response to placebo treatment.
— Potassium deficiency or arsenic contamination of drinking water, the first line treatment of erectile dysfunction consists of a trial of PDE5 inhibitor (such as sildenafil). In some cases, treatment can involve prostaglandin tablets in the urethra, injections into the penis, a penile prosthesis, a penis pump or vascular reconstructive surgery.
— Medications (antidepressants, such as SSRIs, and nicotine are most common)
— Neurogenic disorders
— Cavernosal disorders (Peyronie's disease
— Hyperprolactinemia (e.g., due to a prolactinoma)
— Psychological causes: performance anxiety, stress, and mental disorders
— Aging. It is four times more common in men aged in their 60s than those in their 40s.
— Kidney failure
— Diseases such as diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis (MS). While these two causes have not been proven they are likely suspects as they cause issues with both the blood flow and nervous systems.
— Lifestyle: smoking is a key cause of erectile dysfunction. Smoking causes impotence because it promotes arterial narrowing.
ED can also be associated with bicycling due to both neurological and vascular problems due to compression. The increase risk appears to be about 1.7-fold.
Concerns that use of pornography can cause erectile dysfunction have not been substantiated in epidemiological studies according to a 2015 literature review. However, another review and case studies article maintains that use of pornography does indeed cause erectile dysfunction, and critiques the previously described literature review.
Penile erection is managed by two mechanisms: the reflex erection, which is achieved by directly touching the penile shaft,and the psychogenic erection, which is achieved by erotic or emotional stimuli. The former uses the peripheral nerves and the lower parts of the spinal cord, whereas the latter uses the limbic system of the brain. In both cases, an intact neural system is required for a successful and complete erection. Stimulation of the penile shaft by the nervous system leads to the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), which causes the relaxation of smooth muscles of corpora cavernosa (the main erectile tissue of penis), and subsequently penile erection. Additionally, adequate levels of testosterone (produced by the testes) and an intact pituitary gland are required for the development of a healthy erectile system. As can be understood from the mechanisms of a normal erection, impotence may develop due to hormonal deficiency, disorders of the neural system, lack of adequate penile blood supply or psychological problems. Spinal cord injury causes sexual dysfunction including ED. Restriction of blood flow can arise from impaired endothelial function due to the usual causes associated with coronary artery disease, but can also be caused by prolonged exposure to bright light.
It is analyzed in several ways:
1. There are no formal tests to diagnose erectile dysfunction. Some blood tests are generally done to exclude underlying disease, such as Hypogonadism and prolactinoma.
2. Impotence is also related to generally poor physical health,
3. poor dietary habits,
4. obesity, and
5. Most specifically cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease.
Duplex ultrasound is used to evaluate blood flow, venous leak, signs of atherosclerosis, and scarring or calcification of erectile tissue. Injecting prostaglandin, a hormone-like stimulator produced in the body, induces the erection. Ultrasound is then used to see vascular dilation and measure penile blood pressure.
Penile Nerves Function
Tests such as the bulbocavernosus reflex test are used to determine if there is sufficient nerve sensation in the penis. The physician squeezes the glans (head) of the penis, which immediately causes the anus to contract if nerve function is normal. A physician measures the latency between squeeze and contraction by observing the anal sphincter or by feeling it with a gloved finger inserted past the anus.
Nocturnal Penile Tumescence (NPT)
It is normal for a man to have five to six erections during sleep, especially during rapid eye movement (REM). Their absence may indicate a problem with nerve function or blood supply in the penis. There are two methods for measuring changes in penile rigidity and circumference during nocturnal erection: snap gauge and strain gauge. A significant proportion of men who have no sexual dysfunction nonetheless do not have regular nocturnal erections.
Cavernosography measurement of the vascular pressure in the corpus cavernosum. Saline is infused under pressure into the corpus cavernosum with a butterfly needle, and the flow rate needed to maintain an erection indicates the degree of venous leakage. The leaking veins responsible may be visualized by infusing a mixture of saline and x-ray contrast medium and performing a cavernosogram. In Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), the images are acquired digitally.
Exercise, particularly aerobic exercise during midlife is effective for preventing ED; exercise as a treatment is under investigation. For tobacco smokers, cessation results in a significant improvement.
The PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra) and tadalafil (Cialis) are prescription drugs which are taken orally.
A cream combining alprostadil with the permeation enhancer DDAIP has been approved in Canada as a first line treatment for erectile dysfunction.
One of the following medications may be injected into the penis: papaverine, phentolamine, and prostaglandin E1
Although men with premature ejaculation describe feeling that they have less control over ejaculating, it is not clear if that is true, and many or most average men also report that they wish they could last longer. Men's typical ejaculatory latency is approximately 4–8 minutes. The opposite condition is delayed ejaculation.
Ayurvedic formulations useful in different stage of ED & PME
1. Chandraprabha vati
2. Shri Gopal tailam
3. Vanari Gutika
4. Medha vati
5. Akarkarbhadi churnam
6. Swarn raj bangeshwar rash
7. Jatifaladi churnam
8. Saraswat churnam
9. Manmantha rasha
11. Vasant kushmakar rasha
12. Narshingh churnam
13. Sidhha makardhwaj bati
14. Utar basti
15. Anuvashan basti
18. Tribang bhashma
19. Kapikacchu churnam
21. Arjuna churnam