Hindus have 6 philosophies called Dharshanas and believe it or not, Bhagavad Gita starts and ends with Sankhya Philosophy. Other philosophies that are mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita are Yoga and Vedanta. By the way, Bhagavad Gita only mentions three Vedas (Rik, Sama, Yajur). No mention of the Athrava Veda.
The six philosophies known as Darshanas are as follows: Mimamsa (beginning of the Vedas) ; Samkhya; Yoga; Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, Vedanta (end of Vedas).
Vedanta was further divided into two – Advaida (only one) and Dwaita (two).
Vedanta is mentioned few times in the Bhagavad Gita in verses 13:5 and 18:12.
Sankhya or Samkhya is a dualistic philosophy founded by Rishi Kapila which is expounded by Isvara Krishna (6th Century AD) in his work, the Samkhya Karika.
Sankhya or Samkhya philosophy consists of two realities Purusha (consciousness or energy) and Prakruti (matter) ——cosmic dualism. No mention about God.
From Purusha, Prakruti emerges and at the end merges back with Purusha. This is cyclic and never ending according to Kapila. Lord Krishna repeated this fact in the verse (Bhagavad Gita Chapter 9:7 )
Prakruti is governed by three Gunas —— Sattvic, Rajastic and Tamasic.
1 - Lord Krishna begins his advice to Arjuna mentioning Sankhya philosophy in this verse. (Bhagavad Gita --2:39)
2 - Lord Krishna said: “People who follow Sankhya philosophy and people who follow Karma Yoga have the same result." (Bhagavad Gita --3:3 )
3 - Lord Krishna said: “Sankhya and Yoga are one." (Bhagavad Gita -- 5:4,5 )
4 - Lord Krishna discusses Eight basic elements according to Sankhya. (Bhagavad Gita --7:4 )
5 - Arjuna wants to know about Purusha and Prakruti.(Bhagavad Gita --13:1)
6 - Purusha and Prakruti (Sankhya Philosophy) aspects of Sankhya are discussed in these verses. (Bhagavad Gita -- 13:20 to 23)
7 - Lord Krishna said: "Among Siddhas (perfected beings) I am the sage Kapila (founder of Sankhya philosophy) (Bhagavad Gita --10:26 )
8 - Gunas (Satwa, Rajo, Tamo) are part of the Sankhya Philosophy.
9 - Chapter 14 of the Bhagavad Gita is called Gunatraya Vibhaga Yoga means the “Yoga of the division of three Gunas”. In this chapter Lord Krishna analyses Gunas in very minute detail in 27 verses.
Comments on this Article
I asked so many scholars, |
Why do Rishi Veda Vyasa who wrote and propagated VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY is repeatedly mentioning SANKHYA PHILOSOPHY in Bhagavad Gita.
Nobody can answer so far.
Gunas associated with Samkhya Yoga are further discussed in following chapters.|
1 Up-down tree Chapter 15:2,3,4
2 Tapas Chapter 17:17,18,19
3 worship Chapter 17:1,2,3,4,5,
4 Food Chapter 17:8,9,10
5 Gifts Chapter 17:20,21,22
6 Sacrifice Chapter 17:11,12,13 and 18:9
7 Jnana Chapter 18:20,21,22
8 Karma Chapter 18:23,24,25,26,27,28,29
9 Intellect Chapter 18:30,31,32
10 Courage Chapter 18:33,34,35
11 Happiness Chapter 18:37,38,39
What is Sankhya Philosophy?|
According to Sankhya, there are two entities.
One is Purusha (energy or Spirit)
Next is Prakruti (matter)
Sankhya philosophy states that Prakruti came from Purusha and it consists of three Gunas (modes of mind such as Sattva Guna, Rajo Guna and Tamo Guna) and eight basis elements out of which the whole universe is made.