It is a disorder of endocrine system that affects women in their reproductive age that is in between 12 to 45 years of age. It is most common endocrine disorder affecting 10-20 % of women. About more than half of the women with PCOS develope other diseases like Diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia before age of 40 years.
In PCOS a small fluid sacs developes in ovaries. PCOS is characterised by any two out of the following three criteria.
1. Oligo or anovulation (Amenorrhoea or oligo menorrhea)
2. Clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism.
3. Polycystic ovaries (on ultrasound examination).
Causes of PCOS
Exact cause of PCOS is unknown, however there is association with excess insulin, genetics, obesity etc. Family history of PCOS is also a main risk factor. Due insulin resistance , excess insulin secreation is supposed to affect woman's ability to ovulate because of its effect on androgen production.
Symptoms of PCOS
1. Irregular menses, scanty and delayed menses.
2. High androgen level (male sex hormones like testosterone )
5. Acanthosis nigricans, dark patches on skin.
6. Acne, oily skin
8. Decresed libido
9. Depression, fatigue and anxiety
Most of women with PCOS grow a number of small cysts or fluid filled sacs in their ovaries. These cysts can lead to imbalance in hormonal levels. Women with PCOS experience menstrual cycle abnormalities , increased androgen levels, excess hair growth, obesity, acne, infertility etc.
Women with PCOS if conceives then there may be high risk of miscarriage , gestational diabetes, premature labour, pregnancy induced hypertension etc.
Diagnosis of PCOS
Following diagnostic tests are useful in detection of PCOS.
1. Ultrasound of abdomen and pelvis
2. Thyroid profile- T3,T4, TSH
3. Hormonal levels
4. Lipid profile
5. Blood glucose level
Associated health risks of PCOS-
1.Type 2 Diabetes
5.Abnormal uterine bleeding
7. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease.
8. Endometrial cancer.
Treatment of PCOS
In modern medicine for the management of PCOS various medicines are used such as oral contraceptive pills, metformin, fertility medicines etc. Sometimes surgical procedures like ovarian drilling, cyst aspiration etc are also done in PCOS.
Ayurvedic treatment of PCOS
In management of PCOS by Ayurvedic way dosha and dhatu vitiation is taken into consideration. As well as complaints of woman are also considered. Various ayurvedic medicines like Kuberaksha vati, Arogyavardhini vati, Raspachak vati, Raktapachal Vati, Mansapachak vati, Shankha vati, Kumari asav etc. are used according to condition.
Panchkarma therapies like Vaman, Basti, Uttarbasti etc. are useful in PCOS management. Many yogasanas are also helpful.