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Vishnu's Human Incarnations 2
|by Vanaja Teegavarapu|
Continued from Previous Page
In the Tri-Koneshwara temple Lord Shiva’s consort is installed as Shankari devi. She is one and 1st of asthadasa shaktipeethas. Sati devi daughter of Dakshaprajapati was born and married Shiva (against the wishes of Daksha) in Swayambhu manvantara. Having insulted by her father Daksha in Dakshayagna, she immolated herself. Shiva was grief stricken by this and went to forest with her half burnt body. Troubled by this lord Vishnu cut Sati devi’s body into 108 parts with his sudarshana chakra, of which 52 pieces fell on Indian sub-continent (present India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Nepal, Sri-Lanka, Bhutan) of earth and remaining fell on other planets except Sun. After submerging, re-emerging at end of every yuga, chaturyuga, all the Shaktipeethas and Jyotirlingas are found by sages at the present places. Sati Devi had re-born as Parvati and married Shiva in beginning of Vaivaswata Manvantara (Shiva purana).
Not only a devotee of Lord Shiva, Ravana was a Brahma-Jnani. According to Bhagavata purana, Jaya and Vijaya gatekeepers of Lord Vishnu’s abode Vaikuntham were cursed to be born in earth by chatur-sanas for their refusal to permit hermits to enter Vikuntham. As Lord VIshnu amended the curse two ways. They should be born as devotees of Vishnu for 7 times or 3 times as enemies of Vishnu. They chose the second option as they could not live without Lord’s presence. First birth of them was Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakasipu, second birth was Ravana and Kumbhakarna, third birth was Shishupala and Dantavakra. Though they were born as demons and portrayed as wicked, they were Brahma-jnanis (à¤¬à¥à¤°à¤¹à¥à¤®- à¤œà¥à¤žà¤¾à¤¨à¤¿à¤¨à¥). They waited patiently with enymity for number of chaturyugas (most of the demon rulers had ruled tri-bhuvanas for 14 chaturyugas) for Lord to appear and slain them. In this birth as demon, Ravana ruled his kingdom very well and subjects were very happy with him. To reach Lord Vishnu he could find only one way which is to abduct Vishnu’s consort Goddess Laksmi who was shakti. As to reach her was quite impossible, Ravana wanted to abduct Vedavati who was form of Goddess Lakshmi born to Lord Vishnu’s devotee King Kushadwaja. As some legends states that Vedavati immolates when Ravana approaches her as she was performing penance, later he took the ashes to Lanka. Having seen ashes, Mandodari wife of Ravana ordered servents to bury ashes. As they buried the ashes in King Janaka’s Mithilapuri (presently it is in Nepal and India border), she was born when king Janka was ploughing. Hence the name Sita (line of plough share).
Goddess Lakshmi descended to earth first as Vedavati. As Lord Vishnu knew the future, he incarnated as Rama (In the name Rama, Ra is taken from ashatakshari mantra OM NAMO NARAAYANAYA, ma is taken from panchakshari mantra OM NAMA: SHIVAAYA, hence Rama mantra is more powerfull as SHIVAAYA VISHNU RUPAAYA SHIVA RUPAAYE VISHNAVE) and born to Dasaratha and Kausalya as son, learnt all knowledge which was required for king from sage Viswamitra and married Sita in swayamvara by lifting Shiva Dhanus gifted by Lord Shiva to King Janaka, in which the Ravana’s participation was a failure. Though Ravana was a devotee of Lord Shiva, he could not lift the Shiva Danus. As he was very much displeased, he vowed to abduct Sita devi. As he could not touch Sita Devi (he was fully aware the she was goddess and he should not touch her), he abducted from chitrakuta mountains (presently moutaions are in Madhya Pradesh, They spread from M.P to A.P) with landmass. Meanwhile on way to Lanka, Ravana killed Jatayu and jewels of Sita were thrown by Sita on Kishkindaranya (presently it is region on the banks of Tungabhadra river near Hampi in Karnataka, then it was called Pampa sarassu where Hanuman rested), reached Lanka and held captive in Ashoka vana under Ashoka tree as Sita devi refused to stay in Ravana’s palace. Daily Ravana used to visit Sita devi at Brahma Muhurtha (Brahma Muhurtha is time of Brahma, one and thirty six minutes before sunrise precisely and is called creater’s hour) to take her blessing (exerpts from the pravachanam on Shodasa Ramayanam in telugu compiled by Sree Gurram Jashuva).
Lord Rama with Lakshmana travelled south in search of Sita Devi met vanara king Sugreeva and Hanuman in Kishkindaranya. Having met Rama, Hanuman found his idol and went to Sri Lanka in search of Sita Devi. Hanuman returns after finding Sita devi in Ashoka vana, Rama built stone bridge with the help of vanarasi (Nala and his brother Nila were credited with building of Rama setu) from Rameshwaram in India to Talaimannar in Sri Lanka which was the shortest distance between two countries then and now. Before travelling to Lanka, sage Agastya who was kumbhasambhava (kumbha+ sambhava =pot+born = born in pot) appeared before Rama and imparted ADITYAHRUDAYA STOTRAM. Before crossing the bridge Rama installed Saikata (sand) lingam on banks of ocean in Rameshwaram and prayed to Lord Shiva. In Lanka Rama killed Kumbhakarna, Indrajit and Ravana. As Ravana possessed the thorough knowledge of Ayurveda and Political science, he taught these two to Lakshmana before his death by the order of Rama and attained moksha. To ward of Brahma hatya dosaha, Rama installed another saikata lingam in place presently named Manavari in Sri lanka. After the death of Ravana, Sita devi was brought to war-zone and she was asked to prove sanctity by entering fire. Immediately Agni brought real Sita devi from fire (Sita’s agnipravesha sthalam) took maya Sita in. Rama was then pleased and installed two more shivalingas to ward of Brahma hatya dosha and crowned Vibheeshana as the king of Lanka, awarded him a boon to be immortal, returned to AYODHYA with Sita, Lakshmana, others in Ravana’s Pushpaka Vimana and ruled the country for 10,000 years (life span of human in treta yuga was 10,000 years), ascended to Vaikuntham. Sita devi gave birth to twins named Lava, Kusha in Valmiki’s ashram, later she send them to Rama (Sita Devi did not return to Ayodhya from Vanavasa) and ascended to Vikuntham before Rama. She descended to earth much earlier than Rama and left earth much earlier than Rama.
In the nearly end of every Dwaparayuga Lord Vishnu incarnates as Vyasa (title) and compiles puranas till that day. Literally vyasa means writer. In every chatur-yuga vyasas had a different names. In this 28th chaturyuga vyasa was named Krishna Dwaipayana (Krishna means dark complexion, dwaipayana means island born, dwaipa = islander, ayana = arrival, here it means born). Not only the compiler of Mahabharata, Vyasa was character in it. He is considered to be one of the 7 immortals who is still in existence.
Another important incarnation of Lord Vishnu was Krishna. This incarnation took place almost at the end of Dwapara-yuga (human life span in Dwapara-yuga was 1000 years). According Brahma Vaivartha purana and Big Bang theory (scientifically) there were and are infinite universes in present cycle in which biggest universe in galaxy is called Gokulam and our universe is smaller one. The purpose of this incarnation was Lord Vishnu had to participate in Kurukshetra war and Vishnu of our universe (every universe had their own Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) had granted the wishes of rishis to dance with them. As Vishnu could not attend both at the same time, he requested Lord Krishna (this Krishna is different from our universe Krishna) of golokam to be born on our earth. Lord Krishna of our earth was amsh of Goloka Krishna and Vishnu of our universe (Harivamsam). Lord Krishna was born to Devaki (sister of Kamsa, king of Mathura) and Vasudeva (son of yadava king Shurasena, was the cousin of Nanda who was chief of Gokul mandal) as the eighth son with seventh son Bala Rama (who was also considered as incarnation of Vishnu). Though he was born in jail in Mathura, brought to Gokul in fear of getting killed by Kamsa. Goloka Krishna’s consort Radha Devi was born in village near Gokul (There was another Radha who was Krishna’s aunt and staunch devotee of Krishna). As the purpose of this incarnation was to slain the evil persons, demons, Krishna started killing them as an instant and continued till he was 11 years old. Meanwhile he played with gopas and gopikas (rishis) as promised on river banks of Kalindi river (presently Yamuna river), showed Yashoda 14 worlds, liberated the gandharvas from the curse. Appoximately at the age of 12, Goloka Krishna with Radha Devi and gopikas left to Brundavan to participate in Raasa Leela for Lord Brahma’s one day (kalpa) which is 4.32 billion solar years and Gokula Krishna went to Mathura, killed Kamsa left Shishupala, Dantavakra as promised his aunt not to kill them till they complete 100 abuses against him and ruled Mathura approximately for 50 years.
Jarasandha, King of Magadha (presently Patna, Nalanda and Gaya), invaded Krishna (he was uncle of Kamsa), defeated by Krishna 17 times. As Jarasandha was destined to be killed by Bheema, Krishna and Bala Rama left Mathura unseen by Jarasandha hid in city Kushastali (presently it is called Muladwaraka in Kodinar village approximately 36 km from present Somnath in Junagarh district of Gujarath state, India). As Krishna set his first foot here it was called Muladwaraka. By the order of Krishna, Vishwakarma architect of devas, built city of Dwaraka in one night on seashore. Originally same landmass which was sports ground for King Raivata who ruled Kingdom Anartha in 5th manvantara named Raivata manvantara, spread in Raivataka mountains(presently Girnar mountains) and submerged in ocean. The same landmass was brought back was Dwaraka (dwaraka in Sanskrit means many doors) was built which also was called DHARAVATI. Present Muladwaraka is small landmass remained when entire Dwaraka was submerged, some land mass also remained in the middle of sea which is presently called Bet Dwaraka (Bet in gujarati means island) where Krishna met Sudhama when Sudhama visited Dwaraka, Sudhama’s birth place was Porbander and it is near to Bet Dwaraka). Historians believe that original Dwaraka might have spread from present Dwaraka to present Somnath.
Yuddhistara, eldest of pandava brothers having became king of Indraprasta (present New Delhi) performed Rajasuya –yaga. Krishna helped Bheema in killing of Jarasandha (king of Magadha). At the Rajasuyam when Yudhistira and four brothers were honouring Krishna, Krishna had to chop of heads of Shishupala and Dantavakra having completed 100 abuse with his Sudarshana chakra and later he visited Nanda, yasoda, showed them Goloka Brundavanam by Divya Vimana. Krishna assisted Pandavas whenever and wherever they needed him. He ruled Dwaraka totally for 75 years. After Mahabharata war Yuddhistara ruled Hastinapur (appr. 100 km from present New Delhi) for 36 years, crowned Parikshit (son of Abhimanyu) as emperor of Kuru kingdom and left on pilgrimag with his four brothers and wife Draupadi. Krishna ruled Dwaraka for 36 years : having cursed by Gandhari and saptarishis for the complete wipe out of the yadavas : Krishna went to Balka tirth (near Somnath temple at Prabhas Tirth where confluence of Hiranya, Kapila, Sarasvati meet with Arabian sea) left his physical body by arrow shot on foot by hunter Jara and finally departed to Vaikuntham. Present Dwaraka was built by Viswakarma in the period of Krishna’s great-grandson Vajranabha(son of Aniruddha) on the landmass of 12 yojanas left when original Dwarka was submerged. According to SURYA SIDDHANTA (it is a Sanskrit treatise in Indian Astronomy), Kali-yuga started on zero hours of 18 feb 3102 BCE which is also considered date of Krishna niryana from earth to Vaikuntham. Krishna lived on the earth for 125 years which was very young age as life span of humans in dwapara yuga was 1000 years.
After Mahabharata war, Once again Lord Vishnu wanted to prevail peace across the earth, he incarnated as Siddhartha Gautama in beginning of present Kali-yuga (6-5 B.C), belongs to Ishwaku dynasty. Gautama’s mother queen Maya is believed to have conceived him near the legendary lake ANAVATAPATA in Sanskrit and ANATHOTA in pali which we presently named as Manasa-sarover (this is created by Lord Brahma’ mind). Hence the lake which was part of Himalayan mountains is very sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and jains (Rishbhanath attained moksha here). Gautama born in Lumbini (presently in Nepal) raised in Kapilavastu (Northern Indian Frontier), the Sankya capital, believed to have lived in 6th to 5th BCE was not interested in material life from childhood. Though he was not interested in life, he was forced to marry and bore a child named Rahula (Gautama named him Rahula as he was an obstruction for his ambition to be a sanyasi. After he became Buddha he took Rahula as first disciple), went to Gaya (Bihar, India) and meditated rigorously under pippal (Bodhi or Aswatha which is very sacred for Hindus) tree, enlightened after 7 years. After enlightenment Gautama’s name changed to Buddha which means enlightenment. Lord Buddha followed Ahimsa which means not to hurt any living beings. Buddism spread from present AFGANISTHAN through complete Himalayan mountain range to CHINA, FAR EAST, JAPAN and was more popular there. He manifested in form of mantra “ OM MANI PADME HAM “ which is six syllable Sanskrit mantra. Buddha went to mahasamadhi at age of 80 around 544 BCE.
Generally Lord Vishnu incarnates for destruction of evil forces, to impart the knowledge, to establish dharma. According to Varaha purana, Lord Vishnu descends to earth in search of his consort Goddess Lakshmi (she was angry when sage Bhrugu hits Vishnu’s chest with his foot with eye, which was place of Lakshmi Devi). According to another legend Vishnu descends to earth to marry Padmavaty as she was Vedavati in Ramavatara (Rama could not marry Vedavati as purpose of Ramavatara was to have only one wife) and to satisfy Yashoda’s (Lord Krishna’ adopted mother in Dwapara-yuga, born as Vakula Devi in present Kali-yuga) wish to perform Vishnu’s marriage, Vishnu was sheltered in Varahakshetra as this was the place on earth Vishnu as Varaha stayed. After marriage with Padmavathi, a rift between Lakshmi and Padmavathi broke, Lord turned into stone idol with shanka, chakra, gada, Lakshmi on chest and installed in Tirupati of Andhra Pradesh (India). It is unsure to consider whether this incarnation is human incarnation or not but he would bless the people till the end of Kali-yuga.
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