Parabrahma Tattwam by Muthuswamy Dikshitar
I prostrate to the dawn/dusk lamp ; whose light is the knowledge principle (supreme God) which removes the darkness of ignorance and by which all can be achieved in life.
Muthuswamy Dikshitar was one of the trinity’s (Tyagaraja Swamy, Shyama shastry, Dikshitar) of vaggeyakaras of 18th century in South India.
Ramaswami Dikshitar was blessed by Lord Vaidyanath (Lord Shiva) and his consort Goddess Balambika: Vaideeshwaran koil (Tamilnadu): with the son, who was named Muthuswamy Dikshitar after Lord Subramanya (Muthukumaraswamy in Vaideeshwaran Koil). Dikshitar was asked to accompany his guru Shree Chidambara yogi to Kashi, was blessed by Goddess Saraswati in Ganga river with Veena: which was inscribed with RAMA on it in Devanagiri script:. When Dikshitar was young, he and his sibblings used to visit Fort St George, the official seat of East India company in South India. There he gained the familiarity with western music and he started composing the songs in Sanskrit, Telugu based on the western tunes and to the western tunes. Later these compositions are known as “Nottuswara Sahitya”. A string instrument known as “ fiddle “ was more used in western music. Dikshitar’s family was more fascinated by this instrument. They started to play carnatic music using fiddle (violin). From that time violen started playing an Important role in classical music in India. Dikshitar had composed music in Manipravalam, which is the admixture of Tamil and Sanskrit. Manipravalam literally means Ruby-Coral (Mani =Ruby in Tamil, Pravalam = Coral in Sanskrit).
By the advise of his guru Shree Chidambara Yogi, Dikshitar went to the famous temple of Lord Subramanya in Thiruthani (Tamilnadu), where he performed “Sadakshari Mantra Deeksha “ for 40 days. On the last day of deeksha, he was blessed by Lord Subramanya as the oldman and was given sugar candy as prasadam which was put in his mouth by the oldman. Immediately Dikshitar rendered a kriti “Sri Nadadi Guruguho Jayati Jayati“ in Mayamalavagowla raga. In this kriti Dikshitar paid tribute to his vidya guru Sree Chidambara Yogi (Yogi’s Srividyadiksha’s name was ‘Srinatha‘, that of Dikshitar was ‘Chidanandanatha‘) and Lord Subramanya (Guru Guha). This composition is based on the concept of Guru. Guha means cave. Lord resides in the heart (cave) of devotee. Lord Subramanya is named Guha. Dikshitar had taken ‘Guru Guha‘ as his mudra. This kriti is called 1st Vibhuti kriti.
Mayamalavagowla is 3rd raga in 3rd Chakra (Agni Chakra). Mythological Trinity are Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva. In Mind, Body, Soul Chakra – Chakra 3 is Sacral or Kundalini Chakra which rules over the pleasure centres. Ragas are believed to affect various “ Chakras “ (energy centres or moods) in the path of Kundalini. Aptly Mayamalavagoula belongs to Kundalini Chakra. This is ancient raga which sounds divine and evokes bhakti rasa. This raga has potency to neutralize the toxins in the world. Practice this raga in early hours of morning in the midst of the nature will improve the strength of the vocal chords. Hence it is called morning raga. The speciality of the raga is rich and sweet. Hence Purandaradasa started music lessons with saraliswaras, alankaras and lakshya geetas in this raga. Dikshitar had attained the knowledge of Vedanta through music, which described the uniqueness of god in different forms and with his first composition (mayamalavagowladidesha), he introduced raga mudra whever possible.
The interpretation of kriti: Pallavi:
Srinathadi Guruguho Jayati Jayati, Sri Chidanandanathohamithi, Santhatam Hridini Bhaja:
Chidanandanathoham (Aham:I =Dikshitar) salutes (jayati) his vidyaguru (Srinatha), Guru Guha(Lord Subramanya) and he (Dikshitar) serves (bhaja) The victorious (jayati) Lord wholeheartedly (hridini) and eternally (santhatam).
Naanaa Prapancha Vichitrakaro, Naamarupa Panchabhootakaro, Ajnaana Dhwanta Prachanda Bhaskaro, Jnaana Pradayaka Maheswaro.
He (Lord Guru Guha) is originator of many (naanaa) diversified forms (akaro) of the world (prapancha). He manifests (rupa) as five (pancha) elements (bhuta), whose names (naama) are prithvi (earth), vayu (air), jala (water), aakasha (sky), agni (fire). He is mighty sun (Bhaskaro) destroying (prachanda) the darkness (dhwanta) of ignorance (ajnaana). He is the bestower (pradayako) of spiritual knowledge (jnaana). He is the Maheshwara.
Dinavanodyukta Divyataro, Divyaughaadi sakala Deha Dharo, Maanasananda Chaturataro, Mad Guru varo Mangalamkaro.
He (Lord) is divine (divya) kalpaka vriksha (vano dyukta) for the needed (dina). He is the bearer of “ sacred (divya) streams (aughadi)” or “ divine hosts ‘forms of Shiva, Durga ‘ (divyaugha) “. He grants happiness to the heart (maanasaananda) of devotees. He (mad guru =my guru) would bless (mangalam) me.
Maaya Maya Vishwaadhitaano, Maatmakaadi Mataanustaano, Maalini Mandalaantha Vidhano. Mantraadyajapaa Hamsa Dhyaano, Maayakaryaa Kalanaa Hino, Maamaka Sahasra Kamalasino. Maadhurya Gaanamruta Paano. Maadhavaayabhaya Vara Pradaano, Maaya Sabalitha Brahma Rupo. Maarakoti Sundaraswaroopo, Mahitaam Hridaya Gopura Dipo, Matta Suraadi Jaya Prataapo.
He (Lord) is the source (adhistano) of the illusory (maaya maya) world (viswa). He is to be invoked (anustano) through mantra (mataa) beginning with ‘ Ka ’ (kaadi) ending with ‘ Ma ‘ (maatmaka). He resides (vidhaano) in the centre (mandalaanta) of Malini-Chakra. He is to be meditated upon as swan (Hamsa) representing AAJAPA mantra. He destroys (hino) the behavior of Maaya (illusion). He resides in my (mamaka) thousand (sahasra) petalled lotus (Kamalasino) heart. He enjoys nector (amruta) of sweet (madhurya) music (gana). He provides (pradaano) shelter (abhaya) and boons (vara) to MADHAVA and others. His Brahmaswaroopa is veiled(sabalita) by Maya. His beauty (sundara swarupo) excels crores (koti) of desires (mara). He is the light (deepo): who shines atop tower (gopura): like the heart of the devotees (matimataam=esteemed). He vanquished (conquered=jayapradato) the proud (matta) sura and others (adi).
Madhyama kala sahityam:
Maayaamaalavagoulaadidesha, Mahipati pujitha pada Pradesha, Maadhavaadhyamara Brunda Prakaasha, Maheshasya Mahaartopadesha.
His abode (pada pradesha) is worshipped by great Lords like Brahma=mind, Vishnu=body, Shiva=soul (maayaamaalavagoulaadidesha). He shines as surrounded by Vishnu and other gods (Maadhavaadyamara). He explained (upadesha) the real truth of pranava (maharthaa) to his father, Mahesha.
This is called “ Subramanya Gita “ (Gita means song in praise of God): Bhagavad Gita is song of Lord Krisna and Bhagavati Gita is song of Divine Mother. Dikshitar had embedded “ essence of Parabrahma Swaroopam “ in this kriti and “essence of vedanata, spirituality “ in his kritis. Music is divine. Dikshitar attained the divinity through music.