The worldly wisdom among mainstreamers is that the Universe is ultimately comprised of discrete particles. Researchers have inferred this view of our cosmos from experiments, and students casually accept this version in high school and college.
What needs to be underscored is that the Particle Hypothesis is just that: an assumption. No theoretical physicist, particle physicist, mathematical physicist, string theorist, quantum mechanical theorist… has ever seen a single discrete particle. In fact, none of the above have even seen a hydrogen atom.
It is thus that Quantum Mechanics still invokes the Rutherford-Bohr planetary model of the atom to explain ionization and electricity: the flow of electron beads. But not one theorist can explain what physically binds the electron bead to the positive nucleus in the first place.
Similarly, General Relativity holds that we inhabit an unimaginable four-dimensional (4D) medium known as spacetime…
An event is something that happens at a particular point in space and at a particular time. So one can specify it by four numbers or coordinates… It is often helpful to think of the four coordinates of an event as specifying its position in a four-dimensional space called space-time. It is impossible to imagine a four-dimensional space.” S. Hawking, A Brief History of Time (1988) Chp. 2
Actually, spacetime is not a physical medium but rather a mathematical concept: the four coordinates required to specify the location of an event. This explains, in great measure, why ‘4D’ spacetime is unimaginable.
But then, what physical entity prevents the Moon from leaving the Solar System if spacetime is just an abstract concept? What is the physical interpretation of this phenomenon?
The Rope Hypothesis
What if we were to make a different assumption? What if rather than discrete particles we visualize a Universe where all atoms are physically interconnected?
This alternative vision of Mother Nature’s invisible world enables us to explain action-at-a-distance phenomena such as gravity and magnetism. If you want to tug the donkey in, you can’t throw discrete rocks at it. You must absolutely pull it with an elongated medium of some kind: a rope, a wire, a string, a chain, a cable…
If the Moon doesn’t fly out of the Solar System it is because every atom comprising the Moon is physically bound to every atom comprising the Earth. Or as one instructor puts it:
So, for example, if you have the Earth – there’s a big mass here – and you have you with you little mass here, every atom on the Earth is pulling on every atom of you. You’re also pulling on it! The amazing thing about gravity is that it goes right through things.” Richard Muller, Gravity and Satellites, UC Berkeley (July 11, 2017)
Imagine the mediator of light and gravity to be a DNA-like, twined pair of threads: a double helix. Up front, this rope-like architecture meets the specification of the Fresnel-Maxwell transverse wave.
Think of the electromagnetic (EM) rope as a tense mediator. The atoms at either end expand and contract and torque the taut rope. It is the torsions propagating along this agent that we refer to as light or EM ‘waves’.
Meanwhile, if every atom of the Moon is physically bound to every atom comprising the Earth, we can readily understand why the Moon doesn’t fly out of the Solar System. Indeed, an asteroid falling to Earth falls ever faster pursuant to Isaac Newton’s gravitational equation (F = G mass 1 x mass 2 / distance ²) because the closer the two celestial objects are, the greater the fanning out of the ropes that interconnect them. Each rope now acts independently whereas before, at great distances, most of the ropes were lined up on the same axis.