Mother India: Tracing the Footsteps

of Bharata-Mata

Bharata-Mata, my country, my Desha, my Janmabhumi. When did I first realize that? Many of the academics-intelligentsia argue that Bharata-Mata is a construct of 19th-20th century without any ancient history; so, this writing is dedicated to those people.

Bharatavarsha’s original name, as we historically know her, is Prthivi, Bhu, Mahi; and the RgVedic Rshis regarded her as Mata (Mother) to all. [1] So, the realization of Land as Mother is as old as RgVeda. In Atharva Veda, the Rshi declares: “I am the child of Prthivi, and Bhumi is my mother”.[2] The Vedic world focuses on Dharma in secular humanistic spirit. The Rshi says, “Earth bears people of many a varied language with different Dharma as suits their dwelling.”[3] Land, the Mother, people and Dharma thus fuse into one.

Our present point of interest: alternative name of Mahi (Prthivi) is Bharati. Prthivi is the Mother, Bharati is the Prthivi, the Mother. Bharati-Prthivi Mother is already in Vedas.

The first seed of Bharatavarsha-tree is in RgVeda. Vishvamitra Gathina prays to Indra to ‘keep secure the people of Bharata’[4] (3.53.12cd)[5] ; ‘Bharata’ here refers to an ideological unified entity of people and land. At Rk 13, Vishvamitra prays to Indra to ‘make us prosperous’ [note the ‘us’- people, the Rashtra]. Vishvamitra mentions the children of Bharata, and tells Indra that ‘these children’ (ima bharatasya putra; 24a)[6] have no possessiveness or sense of ownership (implied: ‘attachment’) to their own horses when they take the horses to battle ‘swift as the bow’s string’ because they ‘regard not severance or close connection’ (24bcd). The battle-imagery – horses and bow – suggests Vishvamitra views the ‘children of Bharata’ as born fighters who can be ready for battle dispassionately when necessary, forgetting the pangs of separation or emotional attachment.[7] The ‘children of Bharata’ are common people as indicated in the previous Rk – ‘notice not the arrow, O ye people’ (na sayakasya cikite janaso; rv 3.53.23a).

Grtsamada Shaunaka[8] , in a hymn to Vishvadevas, regards Indra, Maruts and Vishvadevas[9] and people [10] around him as ‘dear’, and address all of them as ‘those born of Bharata’ to drink Soma together sitting on sacred grass (bharatasya sunavah; RV. 2.36.2).[11] Devas are thus humanized and endeared. Since Gods and common people are addressed as ‘those born of Bharata’, obviously, ‘Bharata’ here does not refer to any dynasty or person, but ‘Bharata’ transformed to symbol of universal ‘parent’ and Earth; that is, Bharata is an ideological concept of land and people where Devas and humans are equal.

Now, who is Bharata?

In RgVeda, Bharata is a race of people, the descendant of Bharata or worshipper of Bharati and Bharata-Agni. There are two opinions on Bharata, the human, from whose name the name Bharatavarsha is derived. One opinion: the name derives from Duhshanta-Shakuntala’s son Bharata whose historicity is confirmed in ancient Vedic texts and Mahabharata (Mbh.).[12] The second opinion: Bharatavarsha derives from the Ayodhya King Nemi and Marudevi’s son, the first Jain Tirthankara Rshabhanatha’s son Bharata.

This might appear like a Hindu-Jain sectarian rivalry over claims to glory, and section of academia-intelligentsia often take such opportunity to project it as such; however, such parochial thesis holds no ground. The Jain version is accepted by the Hindu too.[13] Major Puranas accept that version, e.g. Vishnu Purana (2.1.26-31),[14] Bhagavat Purana (5.4.9).[15] So, the very name Bharatavarsha symbolizes synthesis and acceptance of multiple narratives, of ambiguity; that is, no Grand Narrative, notwithstanding the fact that Jainism hails Rshabhanatha’s rule millions of years back, thus mythical and not historical.

We have another ‘Bharata’ – Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa’s Jaya-Bharata transformed to Mbh. which would translate as both ‘Great Bharata’ (of Vyasa) and ‘Great Bharata’ (India). The pun provides another dimension to Bharatavarsha – eternally linking the land with literature and culture. The Bharatavarsha-seed in RgVeda grows to Bharatavarsha-tree in Vyasa’s ‘Bharata’ (- to avoid confusion, henceforth Mbh.), where the concept and geographical dimension of Bharatavarsha is first detailed. Thereafter, it is like, Bharatavarsha begetting Mbh., and Mbh. begetting Bharatavarsha.

This enigmatic and paradoxical way of the nature of Bharatavarsha-reality is after the RgVedic Rshi’s saying that Viraj was born from Purusha and Purusha was born from Viraj;[16] or, Daksha was born of Aditi, and Aditi was born of Daksha.[17] The meaning of this allegory has to be understood in the light of Aditi being heaven, mid-air, Mother, Father, Son, all Gods (Vishvadevas), the five peoples (Panca Jana), and all that hath been born and shall be born.[18] This means eternal recycle of essence and wisdom. Mbh. begetting Bharatavarsha, and Bharatavarsha begetting Mbh. – is thus a coded message, eternally linking the geographical Bharatavarsha with human essence and wisdom.

Goddess Bharati, later identified with Vac-Sarasvati, is indeed Goddess of Wisdom.

Another Bharata is often not remembered. In archery, if one hits the arrow at object’s nape, it is called Bharata (grivayam bharato bhavet; Dhanurveda, 90), and if the target is pierced deeply and firmly, it is called Bharata (bharato drdabhedane (92).

Thus Bharatavarsha gets deeply linked with the image of archery. Prthu, the archetype of Kingship-Ideology, who signifies the designation Raja,[19] invented the Bow too. [20]

In Vishvamitra Gathina’s RgVedic hymn, we have already seen ‘children of Bharata’ is associated with Bow. Two great archer personalities thus get associated with the essence of Bharatavarsha – Dasharathi Rama and Kunti-putra Arjuna, and in a unique way, Bharatavarsha gets connected with Ayodhya.

The Itihasa of both Dasharathi Rama [21] and Arjuna is narrated in Vyasa’s ‘Bharata’. In the Jain and Hindu Puranas, Bharata’s father Rshabhanatha had his seat in Ayodhya, thus linking with Rama. Arjuna too has Ayodhya connection. Pithapuram Inscription of Chaḻukya Mallapadeva (1202 A.D), in present Andhra Pradesh, informs that Arjuna’s descendants ruled Ayodhya.[22] And we know, Vyasa composes Jaya-Bharata (Jaya is one of Arjuna’s names); Jaya-Bharata defines Bharata-Bharatavarsha; Bharata transforms into Mbh. during lifetime of Janamejaya PariksiÌ£ta, Arjuna’s great grandson (Abhimanyu – Parikshita – Janamejaya); and the Bharata-Mbh. now defines Bharatavarsha and also narrates Bharata’s Itihasa. The point is: Rama and Arjuna are at Bharatavarsha’s heart.

We have three other Bharatas. One, Bharata-Agni, the RgVedic deity of the Bharatas. Two, Rama’s brother Bharata, Kaikeyi’s son, in Ramayana. Three, Bharata Muni who composed Natyashastra, the first treatise dealing with Rasa Theory, and performance. Bharata-Agni represents devotion and devatva; Rama’s brother Bharata represents sacrifice, love, loyalty, responsibility and Dharma; Bharata Muni represents Art and Culture. The same significance of Bharatavarsha manifests through these ‘other’ Bharatas.

Evidently, Bharatavarsha-consciousness is in essence Mbh.-consciousness.

Coming to Bharati, she is one of the Tisro Devis in RgVeda - Ila/ Ida, Bharati / Mahi, [23] and Sarasvati. Bharati later gets identified with Vac-Sarasvati,[24] particularly in Puranas. Garuda Purana (3.17) hails Draupadi as Bharati’s incarnation. Draupadi is in archetype of Vac-Sarasvati.[25] Now, Draupadi is Shri too and associated with Prthivi. This not only brings us back to Mbh., but we have a glimpse of Vyasa’s Oceanic Mind[26] how he associates Bharati-Draupadi with Bharatavarsha. Indeed, in her Karma-sermon to Yudhishthira, which is in rhythm with Vyasa, Krishna and Arjuna’s Karmabhumi-doctrine,[27] Draupadi associates Dharma and Karma with Bharatavarsha (Jambudvipa) (12.14). We know: Draupadi is Mother Goddess in Folk Mbh. and worshipped cutting across Religions and even beyond borders of modern Bharata-India.

The Vedic Rshis prayed for health, happiness and prosperity of all beings from Mother Earth. It is to note that the Atharva Vedic seed-idea of Bhubharaharana (De-Burdening the Earth)[28] – that is also one central theme of Ramayana and Mbh. - uses the lexeme Bhu for establishment of Dharma though the entire action takes place in Bharatavarsha. As I noted earlier, Bhu and Bharatavarsha are Part-in-Whole and Whole-in-Part vision.

Further interesting to note: Mandala 1 & 10 are generally considered late entries to the corpus of RgVeda and contemporary to Mbh.-Itihasa; and Earth has been hailed as Mother mostly in these two Mandalas. The imagination of Earth and Bharatavarsha as Mother is thus mostly contribution of Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa and his Mbh. through Janamejaya PariksiÌ£ta, and is related to the practical, pragmatic, secular[29] and spiritual doctrine of Bharatavarsha as Karmabhumi – of Vyasa, Krishna, Arjuna, Mudgala and Bhrgu.

Sanjaya tells Dhrtarashtra: “If Earth be well looked after, it becomes the father, mother, children, firmament and heaven, of all creatures.” (6.10.74) Hearing this, Dhrtarashtra wants to know about Bharatavarsha (6.11.1). In Dhrtarashtra’s perception too, Bharatavarsha is representative of Earth. More importantly then, if Bharatavarsha is governed well with Rajadharma, then she is the Mother. Bharatavarsha is thus connected with Dharmarajya.

In RgVeda, Rashtra in original sense is organized people with governance, development (material and spiritual) and security; thus in Vedic Age, there was Raja and Samrat, structured governance, trade and commerce, various professions, innovations, science and technology, [30] culture – literature, music, dance, art - the military and civil, and the urban and rural society. All elements of modern Nation-State were there with the exception of ink-marked defined borders. Population was less, space was more; thus border-disputes were less or none. Thus, nature – forests, rivers, hills – formed borders of Rashtras; and people were free to live outside Rashtra in these forests or hills and free to move about.[31] This was Bharatavarsha, till the more concrete formation of Janapadas comparatively concretized borders of Rashtras during Shodasa Mahajanapada days.

What emerges from above discussion: the RgVedic ideological Bharata – of land and people – and the Goddess Bharati, merge together to form the image of Bharata-Mata, and Vyasa effects this transformation through Bharati-incarnate Draupadi.

Now, we shall do a time jump, and come down to the 19th-20th century – almost our contemporary - to see how Bharata-Mata has been remembered again during the Bengal/Indian Renaissance, and the Freedom Movement against British Colonial Rule.

The idea of Bharata-Mata in 19th century is first found in Bhudeb Mukhopadhyay’s anonymous work Unabimsapurana (1866) and Kiran Chandra Bandyopadhyaya’s play Bharat Mata (1873). Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay composed Vande-Mataram (Anandama t h, 1880). Sri Aurobindo translated the complete poem in Karmayogin on 20.11.1909. Once, pointing to a map of British India Sri Aurobindo said: “Do you see this map? It is not a map but the portrait of Bharat Mata: its cities and mountains rivers and jungles form her physical body. All her children are her nerves, large and small...Concentrate on Bharat as a living mother, worship her with nine-fold bhakti.”

In the Svadesha Mantra part of ‘Bartaman Bharata’, Svami Vivekananda denounced the slave-like weakness and cowardice of Indians, reminding of the Kshatriya spirit, invoked Indians to shake off cowardice because Svadhinata (Independence) is for the Vira (Virabhogya). And then he gave the clarion call to Indians: “O Viras, be courageous, proudly say, ‘I am Bharatavasi … Bharatavasi is my Prana …The soil of India is my highest heaven, the good of India is my good,’ and repeat and pray day and night, ‘O Lord of Gauri, O Jagadamba, vouchsafe humanity (Manushyatva) unto me!, Mother, take away my weakness, take away my cowardice, and make me a Human (Manush)!’”[32]

Svami Vivekananda lamented the absence of courage and self-confidence among Indians and invoked Paurusha and Manushyatva (humanitarianism),[33] which definitely reminds of Krishna’s advice to Arjuna, and Draupadi’s advice to Yudhishthira: “Where in this country is that sturdy manliness, that spirit of heroism? Alas, nowhere.”[34] Draupadi defines Paurusha as the quality of a person who obtains Phala by his own Karma, and such Phala is visible to the eye or sensory perception (3.33.16).[35] Krishna advised Arjuna: kshudram hrdayadaurbalyam tyaktvottishtha paramtapa (Gita: 6.24.3). Bharatavarsha, Bharata-Mata, Jagadamba, Shakti, Draupadi – all merge in one.

Abanindranath Tagore painted Mother India (1905), Mahatma Gandhi inaugurated the first Bharata-Mata Mandir constructed by Shivprasad Gupta at Varanasi in 1936. The Constituent Assembly of India has adopted "Vande Mataram" as national song at par with janaganamano on 24.1.1950. Bharata-India is worshipped as Bharata-Mata by Indian citizens’ sense of tradition. We know, after independence the Indian Army adopted the battle-cry of Bharata Mata Ki Jaya.

I shall end this article with particular reference to our National Anthem – Kavi-Guru Rabindranath Tagore’s janaganamano adhinayaka jaya he / bharata bhagya vidhata

We know the poem was first sung on the second day of the annual session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta on 27.12.1911. In 1912, the song was published under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata in the Tatwabodhini Patrika, which was the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj and of which Tagore was the Editor.

Rabindranath himself translated as: “Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,/ Dispenser of India's destiny.” [36] In my understanding, the poet invokes the leader (adhinayaka) of people’s mind and heart (janaganamano) who is the fortune-God (bhagya vidhata) of Bharata-India. ‘Bharata’ is Bharatavarsha; who is the bhagya vidhata?

At the third stanza of the complete song, the poet says: “He cirasarathi, taba rathacakre mukharita patha dinaratri / Daruna biplaba-majhe taba shankhadhbani baje /

Sankataduhkhatrata” [Oh! Eternal Charioteer, the wheels of your chariot/ Echo day and night in the path/ In the midst of fierce revolution,/ Your conch shell sounds.]

To me, this is Krishna’s image on Arjuna’s chariot, blowing his Pancajanya conch.

At the fourth stanza, the poet says: “Duhsbapne atanke raksha karile anke

Snehamayi tumi mata / Janaganaduhkhatrayaka jaya he Bharatabhagyabidhata” [Through nightmares and fears,/ You protected us on Your lap,/ Oh Loving Mother!/ Oh! You who have removed the misery of the people].

Rabindranath regards the bharata bhagya vidhata as Snehamayi mata (Loving Mother). Obviously, Rabindranath finds the Mother in Bharatavarsha like Bamkim Candra; and the image of her protective benevolence is akin to Svami Vivekananda’s Jagadamba.

In the fifth stanza, the poet says: “Taba karunarurarage nidrita Bharata jage

taba carane nata matha / Jaya Jaya Jaya he jaya rajeshbara Bharatabhagyabidhata” [By the halo of Your compassion,/ India that was asleep is now waking/ On your feet we now lay our heads/ Oh! Victory, victory, victory to you, the Supreme King].

So, here Rabindranath says Rajeshvara. Is he now hailing Bharatavarsha as male?

No! No, if we understand how he is deeply imbued in VedasUpanishads and Mbh.

First, ‘Raja’ is non-gendered; ‘Ishvara’ is non-gendered; and ‘Purusha’ is non-gendered. In the Oshadhi Sukta (RgVeda 10.97; by Bhishaj Atharvana) in RgVeda, Oshadhi is hailed as both Mata and Purusha.[37] The Rshis have imagined all male Gods as female too, thereby deconstructing gender. At a spiritual level, Krishna-Vasudeva is Krishna-Draupadi- One.

Secondly, even if Purusha is taken as male, Bharati-Sarasvati has male aspect Sarasvata or Sarasvan.[38] Mata is also Purusha in Vedic tradition; Snehamayi mata is Rajeshvara.

So, who is bharata bhagya vidhata in our national anthem? Let us see Tagore’s works.

The Tagore family published a Bangla periodical named ‘Bharati’. It was first published on 29.7.1877. Jyotirindranath Tagore (1849-1925) pioneered the publication. Dwijendranath Tagore (1840-1926) was its editor. Rabindranath contributed three pieces for the first issue, and very soon the ‘Bharati’ became a prominent periodical. In its fifty-year history, the journal had the rare privilege of being edited by ladies for over thirty years. The Tagores truly associated ‘Bharati’ with Woman Empowerment.

Svamiji on his return from America received approbation from Sarala Ghoshal who sent a copy of ‘Bharati’ to him. Svamiji thanked Sarala Ghoshal[39] in a letter, [40] saying he considered himself fortunate “ to win the approbation of highly talented ladies like you.” Svamiji also wrote: “…the approbation of an educated Bengali lady is more valuable than the loud applause of all the men of India. May the Lord grant that many women like you be born in this country, and devote their lives to the betterment of their motherland!”

Bharati’ has been in Tagore’s consciousness. He deplores ‘casteism’ in the domain of literature and culture – those ‘priests’ of culture who judge whether a literary work is Bharatiya or not, and says that Goddess Bharati defies such ‘casteism’. Significantly, here he remembers Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa and Mbh. as ideal of liberality.[41] For Tagore too, Bharati, Mbh.-consciousness and Bharatavarsha-consciousness always go together.

Rabindranath named his dream-project Vishva-Bharati. In explaining the significance, he said: “By the lexical meaning of 'Vishva-Bharati' we understand that the 'Bharati' who has been working unnoticed for so long has come to light today. But there is another phonetic meaning in this too — the world will come to Bharata, and making that world Bharatiya, soaking it in our blood, and inspiring it with the great soul of Bharata, we shall present that soul to the world again. In that way there is worth in the name of Visva-Bharati.”[42]

Earlier, Svami Vivekananda boldly declared that to the World on 11th September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago. He remembered Sarasvati (Bharati) and began his speech with the address - "Sisters and brothers of America!" Later, Sri Aurobindo, in his message on the eve of Indian Independence spoke of “the gift by India of her spiritual knowledge and her means for the spiritualization of life to the whole race.”[43] As Romand Rolland observed, Tagore owes his inspiration to Svami Vivekananda.

Our point: Bharati is the essence of Bharatavarsha to Rabindranath. Elsewhere he says, “Enthroned in this Bharata, you Bharati have sung your song”;[44] he prays for Power and Strength from Bharati.[45] Bharati and Bharata are alternative names to him.[46]

Therefore, Rabindranath’s bharata bhagya vidhata is none other than Bharati. Bharatavarsha is Bharata-Mata, and Bharata-Mata’s essence is Bharati.

The World is our Earth; and we have seen, Prthivi, Bhu or Mahi is Bharati. Thus Vishva-Bharati is the RgVedic Rshi’s ideological aspiration, Bharatavarsha is not only part of the World, but Bharatavarsha can be the World, her teacher and guide.

The Bharatavarsha-spirit, the bhagya vidhata, will continue to guide Bharata-India, and be ever victorious - jaya he. We know, Bharata is also Vyasa’s ‘Bharata’, and Jaya is alternate name. The Mahabharata-consciousness is thus implied in our National Anthem.

Bamkim Candra Chattopadhyaya, Svami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, Rabindranath Tagore and Gandhi-ji have infused us with the spirit of Bharata-Mata – Bharati. It is a great responsibility for us; just paying homage to Bharata-Mata is not enough.

And let us recall the Rshi’s sayings, “Earth bears people of many a varied language with different Dharma as suits their dwelling.”[47] Thus Bharata-Mata is all inclusive of different Dharmas – a vision now reflected in our Indian Constitution.


[1] E.g. RV. 1.89.4; 1.90.7; 1.164.33; 1.191.6; 10.18.10, 11; 10.31.10; 10.35.3; 10.64.14 etc.
[2] mata bhumih putro aham prthivyah [Atharva Veda – 12.1.12c]
[3] (AVS_12,1.45a) janam bibhrati bahudha vivacasam nanadharmanam prthivi yathaukasam
[4] vishvamitrasya rakshati brahmedam bharatam janam
[5] Sayana-Wilson and Griffith wrongly translate ‘janam' as ‘race’
[6] Sayana-Wilson and Griffith wrongly translate Putra as ‘sons’ betraying patriarchal mindset
[7] Sayana-Wilson imagines Vishvamitra-Vashishá¹­ha Puranik conflict here; there is none
[8] Previously Grtsamada Shunahotra
[9] The address to plural figures might refer to Indra’s companions, the Maruts; and since the hymn’s deity is Vishvadevas, they too are implied
[10] Because the address is to plural figures and ‘Bharata’ is human patronym
[11] Also Atharva Veda 20.67.4c. Sayana-Wilson & Griffith mistranslate ‘suna’ as ‘sons’
[12] Aitareya-Brahmana VIII.23 and Shatapatha-Brahmana (
[13] The Vedic Dharma through the ages down to present times, that is Hinduism, the modern name for Dharma or Sanatana Dharma. The Indian Constitution and Indian Legal System have accepted the terms ‘Hindu’ and ‘ Hinduism ’, and majority if not most Hindus too. This paper has no concern with the history of the name. Therefore, I shall use ‘Hindu’ and ‘ Hinduism ’
[14] tatash ca bharatam varsham etal lokeshu giyate / bharataya yatah pitra dattam pratishá¹­hata vanam // ViP_2,1.31 //
[15] yesham khalu maha-yogi bharato jyeshá¹­hah shreshá¹­ha-guna asid yenedam varsham bharatam iti vyapadishanti
[16] RgVeda, Purusha Sukta 10.90.5
[17] RgVeda 10.72.4
[18] RgVeda 1.89.10
[19] Raja from √ranj, meaning one who gratifies the Praja is Raja, implying Raja is a designation for public service, and not any feudal designation to consider Rashtra and Praja as personal fiefdom
[20] prthus tutpadayam asa dhanur adyam arimdama (Mbh. 12.160.84a)
[21] Markandeya’s Ramayana in Vana Parvan
[22] Epigraphia Indica, Vol- 4, pp 226-238
[23] Medhatithi Kanva (1.13.9; Mahi instead of Bharati); Dirghatama Aucatya (1.142.9; Mahi alternate name of Bharati); Vasushruta Atreya (5.5.8; Mahi instead of Bharati); Asita and Devala Kashyapa (9.5.8; Mahi alternate name of Bharati). And Atharva Veda (Shaunaka) (
[24] AKosha, 1, 176.2 brahmi tu bharati bhasha gir vag vani sarasvati // [Amarasimha’s Amarakosha (Namalinganushasanam) (400 A.D)]
[25] Indrajit Bandyopadhyay. 2019. “Draupadi: Lost Sarasvati Regained Vak.” In Neera Misra and Rajesh Lal edited Mahabharata Manthana. Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation, ISBN 9789387587595
[26] Mahabharata is born of Vyasa’s oceanic mind - manahsagarasambhutam maharsheh; 1.53.34a
[27] Karmabhumi doctrine of Mahabharata [3.247.35c; 14.17.32-33; 12.161.10-11; 3.181.31]
[28] “The pure earth that starts in fright away from the serpent, upon whom were the fires that are within the waters; she that delivers (to destruction) the blasphemous Dasyus, she that takes the side of Indra, not of Vritra, (that earth) adheres to Sakra (mighty Indra), the bull, the passionate and Powerful (Atharva Veda 12.1. 37.)”
[29] This-Worldly , and for all Beings, not only for Human Beings
[30] Not to be confused with modern technology
[31] Megasthenes Indica [Arrian: Anabasis Alexandri: Book VIII (Indica). Tr. E. Iliff Robson (1933)]
[32] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Translations: Prose /Modern India/ (Translated from a Bengali contribution to the Udbodhana, March 1899)
[33] In Sh r i R a mak rshn a’s philosophy, M a nu sh has the significance of ‘m a n hunnsh ’ – self-respect
[34] Complete-Works / Volume 7 / Conversations and Dialogues / Shri Priya Nath Sinha /Conversations and Dialogues XXX/ [Shri Priya Nath Sinha]
[35] yat svayam karmana kim cit phalam apnoti purushah / pratyaksham cakshusha drshá¹­am tat paurusham iti smrtam // (3.33.16)
[36] Translation by Tagore, dated 28 February 1919 at the Besant Theosophical College.
[37] E.g. oshadhih | iti | matarah | tat | vah | devih | upa | bruve | saneyam | ashvam | gam | vasah | atmanam | tava | purusha // RV_10,97.4 //
[38] In Rgveda (Rshi Vashishá¹­ha Maitravaruni: 7.95; 7.96. Dirghatamas Aucatya: 1.164.52. Vasukarna Vasukra: 10.66.5a), Sarasvati has Male-masculine form – Sarasvan. In SHatapatha-Brahmana (11:4:3:16), Sarasvati is Lord of pushá¹­i (pushá¹­ipatih)
[39] Her father Janakinath Ghosal was one of the earliest secretaries of the Bengal Congress. Her mother Swarnakumari Devi, a noted author, was Debendranath Tagore’s daughter, and Rabindranath’s elder sister
[40] Complete-Works / Volume 5 / Epistles – First Series / LXXIV/ Letter to Shrimati Sarala Ghosal — Editor, Bharati, 6th April, 1897
[41] Sahityera Pathe | Sahityabicara | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanḍa 23 (Bishbabharati, 1354)
[42] Visva-Bharati | Visva-Bharati-Appendix | Rabindra-Rachnabali, Vol 26 (Visva-Bharati, 1372)
[43] broadcast from the All India Radio on the 14th August 1947
[44] (Kabita) | Bharati | Shudha'i Ayi Go Bharati Tomaya | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanḍa 29 (Bishbabharati, 1404)
[45] Bala Da'o More Bala Da'o, Prane Da'o Mora SHakati | 110, Puja-Prarthana, Gitabitana (Bishbabharati, 1380)
[46] (Kabita) | PrakrrTira Kheda (Dbitiya Paṭha) | Bistariya Urmimala, Sukumari SHailabala | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanḍa 29 (Bishbabharati, 1404)
[47] (AVSH_12,1.45a) janam bibhrati bahudha vivacasam nanadharmanam prthivi yathaukasam


More by :  Indrajit Bandyopadhyay

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Comment I would like to read more of your writings, Sir. What i read just now was excellent and i am sure i can enrich myself by your researches....

Dr Arvind Gopal Kulkarni
02-Dec-2020 12:26 PM

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