Redefining Nastika: Draupadi, Vivekananda,

Rabindranath; The Power of Why

I am aware the title might appear surprising; however, as I shall discuss, there is indeed connection between Draupadi's philosophy and the Bengal/Indian Renaissance thinkers.

Draupadi needs no introduction; however, what needs to be emphatically pointed out is that, she is not just about physical beauty, polyandrous marriage and Vastraharana, More important is the role that she plays as Pandavas’ friend, philosopher and guide – a role obscured by patriarchy to suit its need of constructing the Woman. It is not for nothing that Kunti tells Pandavas to follow Draupadi's Footsteps [1]  

Now, there has been much debate over the imports of Astika ("there is or exists") and Nastika [“there is not or exists not” (na + astika)] for centuries. Astika generally connotes belief in God, and Nastika, non-belief in God. However, this is grossly simplistic. Similarly, Astika taken to connote theist and Nastika as atheist is also simplistic. The complexity arises from complex philosophies like Samkhya Darshana, which does not speak of Ishvara yet speaks of Purusha. So, going by common connotation, Samkhya Darshana is atheist but not typically Nastika because it believes in ‘there exists.’

Actually, Astika and Nastika are often relative terms, often labels. One might believe ‘I believe in God’ and regard his [2] opponent or anyone nonconforming to his view as Nastika. It is often a label in the hand of orthodoxy. Nastika in sense of non-belief in God or agnostic would be problematic for Hinduism, because Nastikya has its origin and sanction in the Vedas – for example, Nasadiya Sukta (RV. 10.129). So, a Hindu may not believe in God yet adhere to Vedas. A Hindu can be Nastika and be Hindu still, a non-permissible aspect in other major Religions like Christianity and Islam.

Some people believe that Buddhism and Jainism are Nastikya from relative perspective of Hinduism; however, that is not the case because both Buddha and Mahavira are acknowledged as Avataras by Hinduism [3].  Besides, there are textual evidences that Buddhism and Jainism too regarded Hinduism as heretical [4]. So, as I said, Nastika, Heretic - are all labeling-games for any perceived opponent.

One popular notion is that Nastikya in the sense materialistic or sensuous has its origin in doctrines of Ajita Kesakambali, Buddha-Mahavira’s contemporary, that later became the Carvaka or Lokayata doctrine. Another contemporary Sanjaya Belatthaputta also preached agnosticism – Amaravikkhepavada. However, as I mentioned, Nastikya and agnosticism are well-attested in RgVeda, and thus has Vedic sanction.

In our time which claims to be the Scientific age, Nastika is claimed to have gained an extensive connotation. The scientific, rational, humanistic, pro-people attitude and non-belief in God are regarded as Nastika. The extended connotation is often appropriated by some political ideologies as an absolute opposition to Religion, apparently following the Marxian dictum ‘Religion is Opium of the Mass’; however, that claim is only claim, because those connotations are already there in tradition of Bharatavarsha.

Pertinent to note: Astika and Nastika per se do not contain any reference to Ishvara or Religion. Merely disbelieving in God or Religion does not make one Nastika because if there is Belief in any political ideology, that very Belief makes it Astika. Better to remember that Human Existential Reality does not permit leaping beyond any belief system. There has to be some Belief for normal human psyche. To be precise: if one goes by the common meaning and boasts to be Nastika in relation to Ishvara, then that very person is definitely Astika regarding some political ideology.

And now let us see how great minds have thought of Astika and Nastika. I shall discuss in this article the ideas of Svami Vivekananda and Rabindranath Tagore only, however, it would be wrong if I do not speak of their precedences.

Shri RamaKrishna did not consider non-belief in God as atheistic merely by label if one believes in heart in any supreme power behind the affairs of the world. [5]  “This is enough if they believe in Power. How are they atheist then? (Shakti to manche, Nastika kena habe?).” To Shri Ramakrishna, Astika is one who sees the Unity of Existence in all its manifestations through an operative Power – and it is not necessary to call that Power by the name of Ishvara or anything else. And Nastika is one who cannot see that Unity.

Shri Ramakrishna said to Bamkim Chandra, “If God can be worshipped through an image, why not also through a living man?” [6] That dictum is the base of Svami Vivekananda’s Seva philosophy for which he established Shri Ramakrishna Mission.

Bamkim Candra Chattopadhyay divides Nastikas into two categories. One: those who say there is no pramana (proof) to Ishvara’s existence. They say Ishvara may or may not be there, but there is no proof that he exists. Two: those who say that there is no proof that Ishvara exists, and there is proof that Ishvara does not exist. [7] 

Bamkim Candra said that the essence of Hindu Dharma and all Religion - Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Komte’s philosophy - is Cittashuddhi. Sakara, Nirakara, monotheism pantheism, Dvaita-vada, Advaita-vada, Jnana-vada, Karma-vada, Bhakti-vada, everything is irrelevant to Cittashuddhi. One who has no Cittashuddhi has no Dharma. One who has Cittashuddhi has no necessity of any Religion. [8]

Shri Ramakrishna and Bamkim set the tone of redefining Astika-Nastika during the Bengal/Indian Renaissance and left for Vivekananda and Rabindranath to elaborate. But now, we shall go back to Vyasa’s Mahabharata (Mbh.) to listen to Draupadi first.

1. Draupadi in Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa’s Mahabharata

Draupadi has been praised in Mbh. as Pandita (scholar), wise in all knowledge and adept in Dharma and Artha. These praises point to the philosopher Draupadi – a side, as I have said, has been obscured by patriarchy by a male-centric interpretation of Mbh..

Post Dice Game disaster, when Pandavas and Draupadi are in Forest Exile, Draupadi finds in Yudhishthira over-inclination to Kshama (Forgiveness) which is akin to loss of Teja; so she wants him to blaze up in Manyu (Anger/Wrath). Draupadi thus seeks restoration of balance of Gunas in Yudhishthira. While Kshama is Sattva Guna, over-inclination is passivity and Tamah Guna; so, the Tamah needs to be balanced by invoking Manyu which is Rajah Guna. This is the same reason why Vivekananda invoked Rajah Guna among his fellow countrymen.

Even if Yudhishthira’s Kshama stems from Sattva Guna, then in Draupadi's perception it is over-inclination to Brahmana Guna because the situation requires action; so, Draupadi invokes in him Manyu, the Kshatriya Guna, to restore balance.

Draupadi points out the fallacy of Astikya in the sense of belief in God and ascribing everything to God’s will. God appears to her like a child playing with toys who can create and destroy at will (36); God does not appear to her like father and mother but an angry vicious person (37); then he is a tyrant like a low-minded person (itaro janah) because he lacks sense of justice, causing suffering to good (Arya) and bestowing happiness on sinful (Anarya) (3.31.38-40).

We find the imagery of child-like God playing with toy in Shakespeare [9] and Vivekananda. And we find Draupadi's skepticism in Ishvara Chandra Vidyasagar.

Draupadi finds Bala (Power) as cause of Karma and Karma-Phala, and pities for the Durbala (3.31.41-42). Draupadi's agnosticism presages Heidegger’s ‘Facticity’ [10] and Foucault: “power is always exercised at the expense of the people… Everywhere that power exists, it is being exercised.” [11]

For this doubt, Yudhishthira calls her Nastika: “Thou speakest, however, the language of atheism.” [12] He censures her: “It behoveth thee not, therefore, O amiable Queen, to either doubt or censure God or act, with a foolish heart."  [13] He gives her a sermon on Dharma and God, and ends with calling her Nastika again: “Let thy doubt, O Krishna, be dispelled like mist. Reflecting upon all this, let thy scepticism (Nastikya) give way to faith” [14]

This is our point of discussion. Yudhishthira found Nastikya in Draupadi.

In reply to Yudhishthira’s Dharma sermon, Draupadi makes clear that she does not disregard or slander Dharma. [15]  And then she speaks of Karma-Yoga: “Do your own work, don’t be fatigued; let Karma be your armour.”  [16]This is the most important philosophic discourse on Karma presaging Krishna’s Karma-Yoga in the Bhagavad-Gita.

Draupadi's philosophy is based on common sense. She denounces the one who believes in Destiny and the one who believes in Chance or Accidents as weak persons, and praises the one whose Buddhi is settled on Karma (3.33.11-13). Since every result is in realm of probability, Karma must be done with Paurusha (3.33.10). Draupadi defines Paurusha as the quality of a person who obtains result by his own Karma, and such Phala is visible to the eye/ senses (3.33.16). [17] Draupadi points out that Idle person is overcome by adversity, while the active and skillful (Daksha) reaps success and enjoys prosperity (3.33.39).

Draupadi takes the same role to Yudhishthira that Krishna takes to Arjuna. Since Power is a determining factor, therefore, it is necessary to subvert Power. Draupadi ends her speech advising Yudhishthira to adopt cunning to destroy enemies. [18]

As we know, Paurusha and Upaya (including Draupadi's suggested Kuta-Kaushala) see the Pandavas through Kurukshetra War. And we understand why Draupadi is the leader of Pandavas in matters of policy formulation. The swelling of Vyasa’s Jaya-Bharata into Vaishampayana-Sauti-anonymous poets’ Mahabharata has obscured this.

Post Kurukshetra War, Yudhishthira is dejected for having caused death of kins and wants to abdicate. Like in Vana Parvan, but furious and harsher this time, Draupadi points out Yudhishthira’s over-inclination to Brahmana Guna, and sermonizes on Raja and Kshatriyas’ duty to wield Danda for Praja Sukha – happiness of Prajas. [19]

She regards Yudhishthira, purushashardula (Tiger among men) and reminds him that he has been ruling Jambudvipa and beyond and thus achieved immeasurable feats [20] (12.14.21-26). Her Dharma and Karma-philosophy is thus connected with Bharatavarsha-consciousness, thereby intrinsically linking her with Vyasa, Krishna and Arjuna through shared ideologies of Jambudvipa-Bharatavarsha, Dharma, Danda and Karmabhumi.

Draupadi advises Yudhishthira to protect Prajas with Dharma, and govern Earth and Jambudvipa without being cheerless. [21] Krishna gives almost similar sermon to Arjuna.

Now the most important part of present discussion. We know Yudhishthira called Draupadi, Nastika (3.32.1c, 38c). Draupadi returns that, and redefines Nastika by calling Yudhishthira’s illogical and irrational Vairagya as Nastikya. To her, Nastika is one who is mad, without sense, of dull intellect, without positive attitude to life, having an animal-like existence, alienated from Svadharma and without Karma interest; in short, bereft of the true significance of Dharma (12.14.33-34). [22]

Narada once told Yudhishthira that Nastikya is one of the fourteen Rajadoshas (faults of the King) ( We understand the significance now.

2. Svami Vivekananda

At this point, we would jump time and come down 5000-3000 years to the 19th-20th century Bengal/Indian Renaissance, and remember first that Svami Vivekananda handed over his legacy to a Woman - Bhagini Nivedita. [23]

Svami Vivekananda remembers Draupadi as one of the Panca-Kanyas with powerful vitality; [24] he remembers her “subjected to most inhuman treatment” and as “ever-devoted and all-suffering.” [25] And yes, he remembers her Vana Parvan discourses. Regarding discussion on ‘personal God’, Vivekananda says:

“It is the same old, old question which you find discussed in the Brahma-Sutras, which you find Draupadi discussing with Yudhishthira in the forest: If there is a Personal God, all-merciful, all-powerful, why is the hell of an earth here, why did He create this? — He must be a partial God.” [26]

Interestingly, Vivekananda, once tired owing to incessant work and seeking some rest, wrote in an emotionally charged letter to Mr. Francis H. Leggett (Dt. 6th July 1896), comparing God with Child playing with toy – just like Draupadi.

Romain Rolland (1866-1944) observed on this letter: “A pathetic cry, whose poignancy will be felt by all who know the terrible exhaustion of the disease that was wasting him! At other times, on the contrary, it showed itself in too great exaltation: the whole universe seemed to him the exhilarating toy of a child God, devoid of reason. But detachment was there just the same in joy or sorrow. The world was leaving him. The thread of the kite was breaking.” [27]

Svamiji lamented which definitely reminds of Draupadi: “Where in this country is that sturdy manliness, that spirit of heroism? Alas, nowhere.” [28] Like Draupadi, Svamiji unequivocally declared the necessity of humanistic Paurusha: "The older I grow, the more everything seems to me to lie in manliness (Viratva). This is my new gospel." [29][Sidelight: Purusha is non-gendered in RgVeda.  [30]

Svamiji shared same doubts and agnostics at a phase in his life; however, he always considered agnosticism and even atheism essential phases for spiritual evolution. He admired Ishvara Candra Vidyasagar for his agnostic and atheist thoughts because God did not save common people from famine.  [31]

In the Svadesha Mantra part of his famous ‘Bartaman Bharata’, Svamiji denounced the slave-like weakness and cowardice of Indians, reminded of the Kshatriya spirit, invoked Indians to shake off cowardice because Svadhinata (Independence) is for the Vira (Virabhogya). And then he gives clarion call to Indians: “O Viras, be courageous, proudly say, ‘I am Bharatavasi … Bharatavasi is my Prana …The soil of India is my highest heaven, the good of India is my good,’ and repeat and pray day and night, "O Lord of Gauri, O Jagadamba, vouchsafe humanity (Manushyatva) unto me!, Mother, take away my weakness, take away my cowardice, and make me a Human (Manush)!"  [32]

Bharata-Mata, Jagadamba, Draupadi – all merge in one. [33]

Svamiji redefined Dharma: “Doing good to others is Dharma; injuring others is sin. Strength and Shakti are Dharma; weakness and cowardice are sin. Independence is Dharma; dependence is sin. Loving others is Dharma; hating others is sin. Faith in God and in one's own Self is Dharma; doubt is sin. Knowledge of oneness is Dharma; seeing diversity is sin. The different scriptures only show the means of attaining Dharma.” [34]

Like Krishna, Arjuna and Draupadi, Svamiji insisted on Karma-Yoga: “How can one work, unless one loves city, country, animals, the universe?” [35]

To Svami Vivekananda, the social label of Nastika does not matter; and the goodness and character of one makes one Astika even if one is known as Nastika or chooses to be known as Nastika. To him, the atheist is better than the sectarian and bigot: “Become atheists! Become materialists! That would be better. Exercises the mind! ... What right have you to say that this man's method is wrong?"  [36] Vivekananda made it clear that bigots are not religious, so atheists are better than bigots. [37]

Similarly, the social identity or label of Astika does not matter and one might be Nastika in derogatory sense depending on absence of certain qualities. To him, mere belief in churches and sacred texts do not make Astika, and he is “rankest atheist” “if he has no perception of God.” On the other hand, one is Astika even if one has never entered a church or a mosque, nor performed any ceremony, but if he “feels God within himself and is thereby lifted above the vanities of the world." [38]

“Most persons are unconscious atheists who self-complacently think that they are devout believers.” [39] Seeing hypocrisy in name of Religion, Vivekananda regarded them atheists, and considered the materialists as sincere atheists “better than the religious atheists, who are insincere, who fight and talk about religion, and yet do not want it, never try to realize it, never try to understand it.”  [40]

To him, the agnosticism of the Buddhists, and the atheism of the Jains, each and all have a place in the Hindu's religion” [41] because though the Buddhists or the Jains do not depend upon God; but the whole force of their religion is directed to the great central truth in every religion, to evolve a God out of man.” [42]

Vivekananda said “It is better to be an atheist than to have that sort of religion” that is just “intellectual assent” [43] because “Mere intellectual assent does not make us religious” and therefore, “We are all atheists; let us confess it... We are all atheists, and yet we try to fight the man who admits it. … So let us not be hypocrites. Let us confess that we are not religious and have no right to look down on others.” To him Astika is the one who has the spirit of brotherhood, one is truly moral when one has actually realized Dharma; [44] without realization, there is no difference between self-proclaimed Astika and atheists. [45]

Vivekananda stressed on rationality and reasons as better qualities “For it is better that mankind should become atheist by following reason than blindly believe in two hundred millions of gods on the authority of anybody. What we want is progress, development, and realization. No theories ever made men higher.” [46] To him, it is better to be atheists than to be “superstitious fools” in the name of Religion. [47]

To him, the social identity or label of theist, atheist, agnostic, Vedantist, Christian or a Mohammedan do not matter unless one learns the lesson of destruction of the little self and the building up of the Real Self.” [48] Beggary, lack of self-respect, is the sign of atheism. [49] If one means by Religion, having “nice healthy bodies” without work to do, then “It is better to be an atheist than to have such an idea of religion. [50]

Vivekananda declared “Whatever retards the onward progress or helps the downward fall is vice; whatever helps in coming up and becoming harmonized is virtue,” therefore, neither theist, nor pantheist, monist, polytheist, agnostic, nor atheist is rejected provided he has the broadest and the most intense character. [51]

Vivekananda did not see any conflict between Vedantism and atheism, if both believe in spirit of equality. [52] To him, those who are caste-ridden, superstitious, merciless, hypocritical, cowards and indulge in political nonsense are atheists. [53] To him, secularism and humanism are better than a parochial Religion, and if one atheist is a good man, then Dharma saves him. [54]

However, to him, the gross materialist is also in delusion like the one who is in religious delusion. “He alone has the right to be an atheist who denies this world, as well as the other. The same argument is for both.” [55] Sensual people are atheists. [56]

Vivekananda’s central concern is humanitarian service to fellow human beings, so it does not matter what social label one carries: “Never say man is weak. Wisdom-Yoga is no better than the others. Love is the ideal and requires no object. Love is God. So even through devotion we reach the subjective God. I am He! How can one work, unless one loves city, country, animals, the universe? Reason leads to the finding of unity in variety. Let the atheist and the agnostic work for the social good. So God comes.” [57]

Vivekananda, like Draupadi, redefined atheism: “As certain religions of the world say that a man who does not believe in a Personal God outside of himself is an atheist, so the Vedanta says, a man who does not believe in himself is an atheist. Not believing in the glory of our own soul is what the Vedanta calls atheism…. He is an atheist who does not believe in himself.” [58] 

To Vivekananda, like the Rshi of Nasadiya Sukta (RV. 10.129) and like Draupadi, it is important to have spirit of query, to be human is to ask WHY, “and to have his question answered by himself, if he only takes the trouble;” [59] and then it does not matter whether one is known as Astika or Nastika.


3. Rabindranath Tagore

Rolland Romanin found Svami Vivekananda’s influence in Rabindranath’s personal evolution. [60] We find remarkable similarity between his and Vivekananda’s thoughts.

Like Vivekananda, he denounced sectarianism, bigotry and Nastika-labeling-game: “We think that the person who is an atheist is agnostic; but since we acknowledge God we are no longer skeptical. Well, saying so we sit with complacent certainty; and whosoever’s opinion on God does not match with ours, we label them Pasamda, Nastika and agnostics. There is no end to how many factions, how many disputes, how many regimes are there in the world over this.” [61]

In similar spirit to Shri RamaKrishna, Bamkim and Vivekananda, Rabindranath did not consider an individual atheist though known as such, if he has vision to work for the future with spirit of self-sacrifice. [62] 

In his poem “Dharmam?ha” (Illusion of Dharma), Rabindranath says that while the person in Religious illusion is blind and kills and gets killed, the Nastika gets God’s blessings and boons if he is not showy and prone to pomposity of Religion. Rabindranath distinguishes Dharma and Religion, and prays to Dharmaraja to destroy perversion of religion and save the bigot idiots. He prays to Dharmaraja to destroy that altar of Religion tinted with violence on the innocent, and strike with lightning the prison-wall of Religion to bring the light of knowledge to this unfortunate country. [63] 

Rabindranath considered them Nastika who believed that Europe’s rule on the world was entirely materialistic. He found power of Dharma even in materialism provided such ideology attempted to do away with human worldly suffering with incessant Karma-spirit aided by independent and benign intelligence. [64] He even praised Christian atheists who dedicated them to service of humanity. [65]

Like Vivekananda, Rabindranath was skeptic of politics, because “Unless we have true faith in freedom, knowing it to be creative, manfully taking all its risks, not only do we lose the right to claim freedom in politics, but we also lack the power to maintain it with all our strength. For that would be like assigning the service of God to a confirmed atheist. …They will be incapable of holding a just freedom in politics, and of fighting in freedom’s cause.” [66]

Like Vivekananda, Rabindranath considered cowardice as atheism: “Our Shastras tell us that Truth, even when it is small, can rescue us from the terror which is great. Fear is the atheism of the heart. It cannot be overcome from the side of negation.” [67]

Finally, like Vivekananda, Rabindranath considered sectarianism and bigotry in the name of Religion as greater threat than atheism: “Such fratricidal aberrations, in the guise of spiritual excellence, have brought upon the name of God whom they profess to glorify, uglier discredit than honest and defiant atheism could ever have done.” [68]

Like Draupadi and Vivekananda, Rabindranath also stressed on the power of asking Why – that anyone asking ‘why’ against orthodoxy may be labeled Nastika. [69]

4. Conclusion

What emerges from above discussion is that: there are two sorts of Nastikas, one going by name and appearance, and the other, in actuality, inclined to Tamah Guna.

The common teachings of Mbh. through Draupadi, Svami Vivekananda and Rabindranath are as follows –

1. If the Nastika, going by such name and appearance, is an active person with good conduct and has the spirit of query, then such person is appreciable, because whether such person believes in God or not, such person is actually Astika

2. If a person professes belief in God and claims to be Astika, but in actuality he is idle, speculative, of bad conduct, bigot and Tamah Guni, then such person is Nastika and to be shunned

The Bengal/Indian Renaissance thinkers – from Raja Ramamohana Ray to Mahatma Gandhi, through Ishvara Candra Vidyasagar, Shri RamaKrishna, Svami Vivekananda, Bamkim Candra Chattopadhyay, Sri Aurobindo, Acarya Jagadish Candra Bose, Netaji Subhash Candra Bose and Rabindranath Tagore – all were unified through common ideology of Bharatavarsha, Rational Spirituality or Adhyatma, Humanism, Karma for the mass and fight against misuse of power in their own ways. Interestingly, the other common thread in their renaissance spirit is Mahabharata. [70]

The danger of our time is not only Religious Fundamentalism or bigotry, but more dangerous than that is bigoted and fundamentalist political ideologies and Pseudo-Seculars that pretend to be rational, pro-people and humanistic glorifying Nastikya but without any clue to its actual significance. That is why these political bigots are keen to spread a culture of A-shraddha (disrespect) at all levels – A-shraddha between teachers and students, between Indian citizens and their tradition – so that they can Brain-Programme their political ideology among common people. With this destructive aim, they imagine various sorts of ‘versus’ – that I call Versus-game. For example, they propagate Shri RamaKrishna vs. Vidyasagar, Vivekananda vs. Rabindranath – and such-like nonsense.

In any case, common people with common sense understand the utter nonsense and idiocy of these political ideologies that sponsor Agenda and Jhanda scholarship and denigrate Dharma and Bharatavarsha. It is time to be Nastika about these Nastikas and throw them to dustbins of time.

As I have discussed above, the great unifiers of great minds have been Bharatavarsha-ideology, Mahabharata, Humanistic-Dharma and Humanitarian-Karma. The more we explore and know Bharatavarsha’s past and tradition, and rationalistically find their relevance in our times, the more we explore and understand the great minds of Bengal/Indian Renaissance, Bharata-India has always better hope to be the world’s spiritual and material guide – a dream dreamt by Svami Vivekananda and Rabindranath.


[1] Kunti tells Arjuna to follow Draupadi's foot-steps (draupadyah padavim cara, 5.88.79c; 5.135.19c, and Nakula says he would follow her foot-step (2.68.45a); in RgVeda the Rshis follow the trace of Vak by Sacrifice - yajnena vacah padaviyamayan (10.71.3).
[2] ‘He’, ‘his’, ‘him’ - in the sense of all gender. This paper has no concern to argue on that. I would accept it as limitation of English language that there is no ‘se’ denoting any gender as in Bengali language.
[3] For example, in Bhagavat Purana
[4] Buddhism: for example in Mahaparinirvana Sutra. Jainism: for example, Bhagavati Sutta
[5] H KathamRta, 1.10.8; Diary of Sunday, 15 June, 1884
[6] H KathamRta, 3.17.3; Diary of Saturday, 13 June 1885
[7] Bamkim Candra Chattopadhyaya. 1886 [Reprint: 1983 (Bengali Year 1390)]. “Samkhya Darshana, 4th Paricched, Nirishvarata”, in Bankimchandra Rachanavali, 2nd Khanda. Kolkata: Sahitya Samsada, p 228
[8] Ibid. p 259
[9] “As flies to wanton boys are we to th' gods./ They kill us for their sport” (Gloucester’s speech in Shakespeare’s King Lear, Act-4 Scene-1)
[10] German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) discusses "facticity" as the "thrownness" (Geworfenheit) of individual existence
[11] ‘Intellectuals & Power: A conversation between Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze’.

[12] uktam tac chrutam asmabhir nastikyam tu prabhashase 3.32.1c
[13] ato narhasi kalyani dhataram dharmam eva ca / rajomudhena manasa ksheptum sha?kitum eva ca (3.32.14)
[14] tasmat te samshayah kRshne nihara iva nashyatu / vyavasya sarvam astiti nastikyam bhavam utsRja // (3.32.38)
[15] navamanye na garhe ca dharmam partha katham cana 3.33.1a
[16] svakarma kuru ma glasih karmana bhava damshitah 3.33.8a
[17] yat svayam karmana kim cit phalam apnoti purushah / pratyaksham cakshusha dRshtam tat paurusham iti smRtam // (3.33.16)
[18] yam tu dhiro 'nvaveksheta shreyamsam bahubhir gunaih / samnaivartham tato lipset karma casmai prayojayet // vyasanam vasya ka?ksheta vinasham va yudhishthira / api sindhor girer vapi kim punar martyadharminah //utthanayuktah satatam paresham antaraishane / anRnyam apnoti narah parasyatmana eva ca // (3.33.51-53)
[19] nadandah kshatriyo bhati nadando bhutim ashnute / nadandasya praja rajnah sukham edhanti bharata // (12.14.14)
[20] etany apratimani tvam kRtva karmani bharata, 26a
[21] prashadhi pRthivim devim praja dharmena palayan / saparvatavanadvipam ma rajan vimana bhava //
[22] Draupadi tells Yudhishthira: “If, O monarch, these thy brothers were in their senses, they would then have immured thee with all Nastikas (in a prison) and taken upon themselves the government of the earth. That person who from dullness of intellect acts in this way never succeeds in winning prosperity.” (12.14.33-34)
[23] 28.10.1867- 13.10.1911
[24] Complete-Works / Volume 5 / Writings: Prose and Poems /The East and the West/ (Translated from Bengali)
[25] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Lectures and Discourses / The Mahabharata (Delivered at the Shakespeare Club, Pasadena, California, February 1, 1900)
[26] Complete-Works / Volume 3 / Lectures from Colombo to Almora /THE SAGES OF India
[27] Rolland Romanin. 1931. The Life Of Vivekananda And The Universal Gospel. Ahmedabad: Navjivan Trust. Digital Library of India, p 106 https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.64304
[28] Complete-Works / Volume 7 / Conversations and Dialogues / Shri Priya Nath Sinha /Conversations and Dialogues XXX/ [Shri Priya Nath Sinha]
[29] Complete-Works / Volume 8 /SAYINGS AND UTTERANCES/16
[30] In Aranyani Sukta (RV. 10.146), Aranyani is called Mata and also Purusha. From Purusha, Viraj was born; again, Purusha from Viraj was born (RV. 10.90.5)
[31] “And it was wonderful indeed to realize the Indian indifference to a formal creed when we heard how this giant was driven by the famine of 1864 — when 140,000 people died of hunger and disease — to have nothing more to do with God and become entirely agnostic in thought.” [Complete-Works / Volume 9 / Excerpts from Sister Nivedita’s Book / Chapter III / Morning Talks at Almora / Place: Almora. / TIME: May and June, 1898.]
[32] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Translations: Prose /Modern India/ (Translated from a Bengali contribution to the Udbodhana, March 1899)
[33] See – Indrajit Bandyopadhyay. 2020. Mother India: Tracing the Footsteps of Bharata-Mata. < https://www.boloji.com/articles/51777/mother-india-tracing-the-footsteps>
[34] Complete-Works / Volume 5 /SAYINGS AND UTTERANCES/ 85
[35] Complete-Works / Volume 8 / Notes of Class Talks and Lectures / JNANA AND Karma / (Notes of a lecture delivered in London, on November 23, 1895)
[36] Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Lectures and Discourses / THE GITA III / (Delivered in San Francisco, on May 29, 1900)
[37] Complete-Works / Volume 3 / Reports in American Newspapers / THE DIVINITY OF MAN / (Detroit Free Press, February 18, 1894)
[38] Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Lectures and Discourses / SOUL, GOD AND RELIGION
[39] Complete-Works / Volume 8 / Notes of Class Talks and Lectures / THE LOVE OF GOD-II / (A lecture delivered in the Unitarian Church of Detroit on February 20, 1894 and reported in the Detroit Free Press)
[40] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / BHAKTI OR DEVOTION
[41] Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Addresses at The Parliament of Religions / PAPER ON HINDUISM / Read at the Parliament on 19th September, 1893
[42] Ibid.
[43] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Addresses on Bhakti-Yoga / THE NEED OF SYMBOLS
[44] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / Jnana-Yoga / CHAPTER VIII / REALISATION / (Delivered in London, 29th October 1896)
[45] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / Jnana-Yoga / CHAPTER XIV / THE REAL AND THE APPARENT MAN / (Delivered in New York)
[46] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / Practical Vedanta and other lectures / PRACTICAL VEDANTA / PART III / (Delivered in London, 17th November 1896)
[47] Complete-Works / Volume 3 / Lectures from Colombo to Almora / THE WORK BEFORE US / (Delivered at the Triplicane Literary Society, Madras)
[48] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / Practical Vedanta and other lectures / PRACTICAL VEDANTA / PART IV / (Delivered in London, 18th November 1896)
[49] Complete-Works / Volume 3 / Lectures from Colombo to Almora / BHAKTI /(Delivered at Lahore on the 9th November, 1897)
[50] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Addresses on Bhakti-Yoga / THE FIRST STEPS
[51] Complete-Works / Volume 4 / Writings: Prose / WHAT WE BELIEVE IN / (Written to "Kidi" on March 3, 1894, from Chicago.)
[52] Complete-Works / Volume 5 / Notes from Lectures and Discourses / ON THE VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY
[53] Complete-Works / Volume 5 / Epistles – First Series / LII / PARIS, 9th September, 1895./ DEAR ALASINGA,
[54] Complete-Works / Volume 5 / Interviews / MIRACLES / (The Memphis Commercial, 15th January, 1894) / Asked by the reporter for his impressions of America, he said:
[55] Complete-Works / Volume 3 / Lectures and Discourses / THE FREE SOUL / (Delivered in New York, 1896)
[56] Complete-Works / Volume 8 / Lectures and Discourses / IS VEDANTA THE FUTURE RELIGION? / (Delivered in San Francisco on April 8, 1900)
[57] Complete-Works / Volume 8 / Notes of Class Talks and Lectures / JNANA AND Karma / (Notes of a lecture delivered in London, on November 23, 1895)
[58] Complete-Works / Volume 2 / Practical Vedanta and other lectures / PRACTICAL Vedanta / PART I/ (Delivered in London, 10th November 1896)
[59] Complete-Works / Volume 1 / Raja-Yoga / CHAPTER I / INTRODUCTORY
[60] “There is no doubt that the breath of such a Forerunner must have played some part in his evolution.” [Rolland Romanin. 1931. The Life Of Vivekananda And The Universal Gospel. Ahmedabad: Navjivan Trust. Digital Library of India, p 318 https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.64304]
[61] Shantiniketana-1 | Sansha?a | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanda 13 (Bishbabharati, 1349)
[62] Visva-Bharati News | Man | The road is ever extended to the outside and has no meaning within itself. | Visva-Bharati News, Vol. II, No. 8, Feb. 1934, pp. 79-87
[63] Parishesha | Dharmamoha | Dharmera Beshe Moha Yare Ese Dhare | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanda 15 (Bishbabharati, 1349)
[64] Pathera Sanca?a | Yatrara Purbapatra | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanda 26 (Bishbabharati, 1355)
[65] Khrshta | Manabasambandhera Debata | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanda 27 (Bishbabharati, 1372)
[66] Creative Unity | The Spirit of Freedom | When freedom is not an inner idea which imparts strength to our activities | Creative Unity (New York: Macmillan, 1922)
[67] Ethics of Destruction | Ethics of Destruction | Parasites have to pay for their readymade victuals | Ethics of Destruction by Sir Rabindranath Tagore, M. K. Gandhi, C. F. Andrews, Dwijendranath Tagore (Madras: Tagore and Company, 1923)
[68] The Modern Review | Religion of the Spirit and Sectarianism | When I was asked to address this distinguished gathering I was naturally reluctant | Modern Review, April 1937
[69] Kalantara | Samasya | Rabindra-Racanabali, Khanda 24 (Bishbabharati, 1354)
[70] Vyasa’s Bharata, and including Vedas-Upanishads, Ramayana and Mahabharata


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