In the 13th century BC, the Hebrew people were living in Egypt, and they were subjected to official persecution. At one time the Pharaoh ordered that all male Hebrew children be put to death. The mother of Moses in order to save him placed the baby in a small reed basket and cast it adrift on the Nile river. The child was rescued by the Pharaoh's daughter, and took him to live in the Royal Palace. When Moses grew to manhood, he lobbied for the emancipation of his people, which was finally but reluctantly granted by Pharaoh Ramses II (1292-1225 BC).
Moses then led the Hebrew people out of Egypt, and spent over 40 years wandering in the Sinai en route to their homeland in what is now Israel.
In about1250 BC God appeared to Moses as a burning bush in the upper slopes of Mount Sinai. God gave Moses Two Stone Tablets containing a set of laws as the Ten Commandments. Moses took these back to his people,and they adopted them as the basic moral code of Judaism Christianity.
Christianity embraced the ten commandments as they are today among the basic belief of over a billion people. Most ancient religions were polytheistic, meaning their believers believe in many Gods and Godesses, such as God of Sun and the Godess of the Moon.
However, the Hebrew people composed of the 12 tribes of Israel believe in a single deity called Jehovah. This was the beginning of monotheism, which today is the central doctrine followed by over half of the religiously faithful people.
100 men who shaped World History by Bill Yenne, Gemini Books,2000, New Delhi.