Sep 30, 2023
Sep 30, 2023
by BS Murthy
Inane Interpolations in Bhagavad-Gita – 11
Continued from Previous Page
This chapter of 34 verses describing various ways of attaining the Supreme lends itself readily for interpolations, and what is more given the seemingly incomplete exposition of the promised dharma in v2, possibly in the in-vogue Gita, there could be some omissions that the original had contained.
At the outset alert, Krishna tells Arjuna
Thus spoke the Lord:
Unenvied as thou I would tell
The art of leading fruitful life.
shri bhagavaan uvaacha
idam tu te guhyatamam pravakshyaamyanasuyave
jnaanam vijnaana-sahitam yaj jnaatvaa mokshyase shubhaat,
So, it goes without saying that until and unless one overcomes his envious tendencies, ‘the art of leading fruitful life’ that Krishna revealed would be of no avail, but neither Gita’s commentators nor the gita-charyas seldom, if ever, stress upon this enabling condition for grasping Gita’s philosophy!
However, hoping that our readers would have grasped the import of Krishna’s above averment for their self-enlightenment, now back the Gita’s interpolative course with the following verses.
Supreme secret that’s sacred
Profound dharma for mankind
Fair and simple, practicable.
raaja-vidyaa raaja-guhyam pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakshaavagamam dharmyam su-sukham kartum avyayam
sarva-bhutaani kaunteya prakrá¹›itim yaanti maamikaam
kalpa-kshaye punas taani kalpaadau visá¹›ijaamyaham
At the end of one kalp, all living beings merge into My primordial material energy. At the beginning of the next creation, O son of Kunti, I manifest them again.
As can be seen, the above contravenes the following (Ch8, v15-v16) besides echoing the interpolative v18 - v19 of this chapter.
Having come to stay with Me
Get they rid of births and deaths.
maam upetya punar janma duhkhaalayam ashaashvatam
naapnuvanti mahaatmaanah sansiddhim paramaam gataah
Journey to Brahman holds return ticket
Journeys back none abode from Mine.
aa-brahma-bhuvanaal lokaah punar aavartino rjuna
maam upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate
Next comes v15 but before that, so as to see it in its interpolative colours, we must view its pristine substance as under
With Me in mind well-meaning
See they beings sourced in Me.
mahaatmaanas tu maam paartha daivim prakritim aashritaah
bhajantyananya-manaso jnaatvaa bhutaadim avyayam
With right intent ’n focus
Such Me worship with true faith.
satatam kirtayanto maam yatantash cha dridha-vrataah
namasyantash cha maam bhaktyaa nitya-yuktaa upaasate
Now comes the ritualistic version of v14
jnaana-yajnena chaapyanye yajanto maam upaasate
ekatvena prithaktvena bahudhaa vishvato-mukham
Others, offering the sacrifice of knowledge, worship me with oneness, separateness and also multifaceted diversity.
Apparently, this is to facilitate v16 to v19 that are but the forerunners to V20 of the next Ch10, and the ritualistic V20-V21 of this one
aham kratur aham yajnah svadhaaham aham aushadham
mantro ham aham evaajyam aham agnir aham hutam
It is I who am the Vedic ritual, I am the sacrifice, and I am the oblation offered to the ancestors. I am the medicinal herb, and I am the Vedic mantra. I am the clarified butter, I am the fire and the act of offering.
pitaaham asya jagato maataa dhaataa pitaamahah
vedyampavitram omkaara rik saama yajur eva cha
Of this universe, I am the Father; I am also the Mother, the Sustainer, and the Grandsire. I am the purifier, the goal of knowledge, the sacred syllable Om. I am the Rig Veda, Saama Veda, and the Yajur Veda.
gatir bhartaa prabhuh saakshi nivaasah sharanam suhrit
prabhavah pralayah sthaanam nidhaanam bijam avyayam
I am the Supreme Goal of all living beings, and I am also their Sustainer, Master, Witness, Abode, Shelter, and Friend. I am the Origin, End, and Resting Place of creation; I am the Storehouse and Eternal Seed.
tapaamyaham aham varsham nigrihnaamyutsrijaami cha
amá¹›itam chaiva mrityush cha sad asach chaaham arjuna
I radiate heat as the sun, and I withhold, as well as send forth rain. I am immortality as well as death personified, O Arjun. I am the spirit as well as matter.
trai-vidyaa maam soma-paah puta-paapaa
yajnair ishtvaa svar-gatim praarthayante
te punyam aasaadya surendra-lokam
ashnanti divyaan divi deva-bhogaan
Those who are inclined to the fruitive activity described in the Vedas worship Me through ritualistic sacrifices. Being purified from sin by drinking the Soma juice, which is the remnant of the yajnas, they seek to go to heaven. By virtue of their pious deeds, they go to the abode of Indra, the king of heaven, and enjoy the pleasures of the celestial gods.
te tam bhuktvaa swarga-lokam vishaalam
kshine punye martya-lokam vishanti
evam trayi-dharmam anuprapannaa
gataagatam kaama-kaamaa labhante
When they have enjoyed the vast pleasures of heaven, the stock of their merits being exhausted, they return to the earthly plane. Thus, those who follow the Vedic rituals, desiring objects of enjoyment, repeatedly come and go in this world.
Now it may be seen that the following v23-v25 are but interpolative extrapolations of -
Those as meditate ’n worship
Them I take My wings under.
ananyaash chintayanto mam ye janaah paryupaasate
teshaam nityaabhiyuktaanaam yoga-kshemam vahaamyaham
ye pyanya-devataa-bhaktaayajante shraddhayaanvitah
te pi maam eva kaunteya yajantyavidhi-purvakam
Even those devotees who worship other deities, filled with faith, they also worship me only, O Kaunteya, (but) incorrectly.
aham hi sarva-yajnaanaam bhoktaa cha prabhureva cha
na tu maam abhijaananti tattvenaatash chyavanti te
For I am the recipient and also the lord of all sacrificial rituals, but they do not know me in essence. That is why they fall.
yaanti deva-vrataa devaan pitrin yaanti pitri-vrataah
bhutaani yaanti bhutejyaa yaanti mad-yaajino pi maam
Those who worship deities attain the deities, those who worship ancestors go to the ancestors, those who worship spirits attain the spirits, but those who worship me attain me.
It may be noted that for all spiritual purposes, this chapter would have ended thus:
Start as wicked My worship
Take them all as well realized.
api chet su-duraachaaro bhajate maam ananya-bhaak
saadhur eva sa mantavyah samyag vyavasito hi sah
Tend I them then turn even
Devout Mine none go restive.
kshipram bhavati dharmaatmaa shashvach-chhaantim nigachchhati
kaunteya pratijaanihi na me bhaktah pranashyati
But then we have the inane extension to the above as under:
maam hi paartha vyapaashritya ye pi syuh paapa-yonayah
striyo vaishyaas tathaa shudraas te pi yaanti paraamgatim
Surely, O Paartha, even those who are born of sinful origin – women, traders, and also Shudras (labourers), they attain the supreme state by taking refuge in me.
This, to say the least, is reprehensible for it is not only caste-ist but also sexist besides being obnoxious, and there must be something drastically wrong with those votaries of the Gita ‘as it is’, who believe that Krishna would have indeed held that view.
Whatever, the moot point is, if as implied, Brahmin and Kshatriya women (no exemption is given to them as they are clubbed with Vaisyas and Shudras, men and women together) were to be born of sinful womb (actually it is paapa-yoni, sinful vulva, in the sloka), it goes without saying that their male siblings would not have been any differently born, but it is yet stated in the same vein that Brahmin men are worship-worthy! Yet this nonsensical verse is taken as Krishna’s word, equally senselessly by the Shudras, who have come to grudge the Gita on that score as well!
But lo, in the very next chapter, Krishna is that which makes woman’s glory!
I’m the death that devours all
As well brings forth that beings
Besides what makes woman’s glory
mrityuh sarva-harash chaaham udbhavash cha bhavishyataam
kirtih shrir vaak cha naarinaam smritir medhaa dhritih ká¹£hamaa
And here follows some prevarication, as if, to dilute V32’s obnoxity.
kim punar braahmanaah punyaa bhaktaa raajarshayas tathaa
anityam asukham lokam imam praapya bhajasva maam
What then to speak about kings and sages with meritorious deeds? So, having come to this transient and joyless world, engage in devotion unto Me.
Now maybe to assuage the hurt feelings is,
man-manaa bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaaji maam namaskuru
maam evaishyasi yuktvaivam aatmaanam mat-paraayanah
Always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and offer obeisance to Me. Having dedicated your mind and body to Me, you will certainly come to Me.
This was indeed borrowed from the following.
Ch18, V 65
If one remains to Me firm
It’s My promise I take him
man-manaabhava mad-bhakto mad-yaaji maam namaskuru
maam evaishyasi satyam te pratijaane priyo si me
Needles to say, the above cited fourteen verses are but inane interpolations deserving to be blue-penciled like the others in this codification for rectification.
Continued to Next Page
More by : BS Murthy