The writings of Hobbes, Darwin and more recently William Hamilton and Richard Dawkins give us a good understanding of human and animal psyches and the selfish nature of genes, individuals and societies. Examples of differential and discriminatory treatment of non-family and non-group individuals by a cohesive group can be seen in tribal warfare in native American history, Tutsi and Hutu genocide in Rwanda, German massacres of the Hererros in South Africa, British massacres of Tasmanians and aboriginals in Australia, American killing of the natives in the USA, Spanish massacres in the Americas and Belgians in the Congo. Other countries are not innocent but their massacres are on a smaller scale.
Other situations where atrocities are committed are to put down native resistance and insurgencies against a colonial occupation and once again the British, Germans, Americans and South Africans (apartheid) stand out prominently. War is used as a pretext as was done in the world wars. Religious persecution and massacres like Jazia taxation and forced conversion were common in the Islamic empires. After WW2 the victorious European powers realized that the new weapons and technology made total war impossible as it would kill hundreds of millions (unlike the tens of millions in the world wars) and destroy the environment of the planet. Thus they set up the UNO, IMF and WB (world bank). It is the nature of those in power to do everything possible to perpetuate it. Thus the UN had a SC (security council) with five permanent members who had the sole veto power.
The IMF and WB were Trojan horses to facilitate economic domination by subterfuge, as confessed in the book titled “Confessions of an Economic Hit Man”. They were responsible for the Asian, Russian and Latin American economic crises with collaboration of corrupt and crooked leaders. FDR’s point man foisted the Breton Woods financial system in preference to Keynes’s better one, and America in the Johnson era abused the system until Nixon’s closing of the gold window. Thereafter all presidents from Reagan onwards abused the dollar’s position as the international reserve currency to lead the US to a debtor’s ruin. Latin America, Asia and Russia had marginalized the role of the IMF until recently, when they tried to salvage their excess accumulation of dollars by loaning them to the IMF in return for SDRs (special drawing rights).
Other alphabet soups to manipulate trade in favor of the West were created in the GATT, WTO and TRIPs. The general agreements on tariff and trade, world trade organization and trade related rights to intellectual property were means to force high value patented products and US government subsidized agricultural products on to under developed Asian, African and Latin American countries. These would prevent them from controlling insurance and banking – high rewarding–in their own countries lacking capital and finance expertise, make western institutions in a position to control their economies and destroy their farmers and make the nations dependent on importing food.
Thus those countries would remain commodity exporters and finished goods importers and remain undeveloped. In previous times this was achieved by colonizing them, preventing industrialization or by de-industrializing them like India and China and burying them in debt by manufactured imports, which were in excess in the developed industrialized countries. Now newly industrializing China is buying up resources around the world with its diminishing value dollar surpluses, while America criticizes it and Germany tries to enact laws preventing foreign takeovers by China and oil rich countries flush with dollars from a de-industrialized America running eye popping trade deficits forever.
Another example is nuclear weapons and related soups like NPT, CTBT, FMCT, MTCR. The genius of American scientists and money to spare, gave it the first nuclear weapons which it misused against Japan to intimidate Stalin and the Soviet Union. When the Soviets got their own weapon in 1949, the US seriously considered using atomic weapons against them. India had similar thoughts about Pakistan. Israel did do it to Iraq and is itching to do the same to Iran. China got the bomb in 1964 and the US considered bombing it. Now China condemns India’s nuclear weapons and India voted to refer Iran to the UNSC. They all worry that Khomeini was willing to sacrifice his nation for his Islamic ideology and his Mullah heirs may become nuclear suicide bombers.
The US smartly devised the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty and those who signed it were forbidden to develop nuclear weapons. Eisenhower’s civilian nuclear energy program allowed assistance for power plants and the right to enrich uranium to the extent for use in power plants. 20% enrichment or less is needed to generate electricity and a much higher percentage for weapons but the technology is the same for both. Atoms for peace and the NPT permit enrichment. Iran is using this loophole to refuse to give up enrichment rights and may be intending to acquire weapons capability by stealth. India used the research reactor to make Plutonium and achieved weapons capability on its own while being a non-signatory. Israel another non-signatory achieved the same status with US connivance. Pakistan the third non-signatory used A. Q. Khan to steal the technology from the Netherlands and by other clandestine means while America purposely looked the other way because it needed Pakistan and militant fanatic Islamicists to destroy the Soviets in their Vietnam like quagmire in Afghanistan. Now the US is a victim of the terrorists it created, and is stuck in another quagmire in Afghanistan.
The British were given nuclear weapon technology by the US. The French did it on their own but helped Israel a little. The Chinese did it on their own but may have had some Russian help. US wanted to prevent other countries from developing nuclear weapons but shortly after China tested they set up the NPT and the comprehensive test ban treaty. The latter would prevent a nation like India which had the know-how from perfecting the weapon by repeated testing. The next hurdle the US created was the missile technology control regime (MTCR). This would prohibit the transfer of technology for a missile with a range greater than 300 kilometers. So even a country with nuclear weapons and warheads small enough to put on a missile would be unable to project it beyond 300 Km and thus would not be a threat to the US ands its allies in Western Europe. To further hamstring India and similar nations, the last soup was the Fissile Material Capping Treaty. This would freeze the production of HEU (highly enriched uranium) and Plutonium at current levels.
Thus India, Pakistan and North Korea would have only 20 kiloton atom bombs (currently less than hundred for the first two and five to ten for North Korea) by the combined nets and impediments of NPT, CTBT, MTCR and FMCR. There is nothing wrong in all these tricks that the US and the West use. They maybe immoral, unfair and unethical but as Chomsky says, nations are not moral agents. My long saga is to inform the unknowing and above all the bunch of retarded and slavish idiots who get elected to leadership in India. My indictment of America and its leadership is for a different but worse crime. They like individuals will do anything to cling to their exalted power status. Unfortunately they have sold their soul to their campaign financiers who have now captured the government and use it to enrich themselves by non-competitive contracts, tax breaks, costly, unnecessary and poorly functioning weapons, favorable laws and loopholes, TARP, TALF, PPIP and zero percent federal loans. All these impoverish the ordinary citizens and ruin the nation. Interested readers should read recent articles by Simon Johnson, Joseph Stiglitz and “The Wrecking Crew” and “The Predator State” by Thomas Frank and James Galbraith respectively.