The old expression "You learn something new every day" may very well be true:
Research shows that the brain continues to forn new neurons throughout life, especially if it's kept healthy and stimulated with mental exercise.
Learning is indeed a lifelong process, beginning even before you're born and occurring every time you acquire and store a new piece of knowledge.
Many parts of the brain work together when you learn new information:
First, a stimulus must be registered through the senses...whether it's reading a statistic, hearning a song, or tasting a strange food for the first time. The brain then must decide how to react and adapt. Finally, this situation is stored as a long-term memory so you can recall that knowledge when needed.
Learning occurs when something is repeated over and over...this is why review is such an important component of classroom education. When you first try to ride a bike or memorize a new math formula, it's difficult because your brain hasn't formed new pathways between the neurons on which the information will be stored. But with practice and repetition, you get better as these connections grow stronger....and eventually you can perform the task or apply the formula without much conscious thought at all.
The ability of the brain to form new connections and physically change shape in response to new experiences is called neuroplasticity.