Analysis of Inclusive education on children with
|Prof. Annapoorni Balan|
A.The Concept of Inclusive Education :
The Inclusion of the inclusive education system is one of the conditions that must be met to build the inclusive society. A society of mutual respect and respect for diversity values as part of the reality of life. Government through GR8 . Number 19 of 2005 on National Educations standards, article 41 (1) has encouraged the establishment of an inclusive education system by stating that every educational unit that carries out inclusive education must have educational personnel who have the competence to organize learning for learners with special needs. Inclusive education is an approach that seeks to transform the education system with translation of the barries that can accommodate every student to participate fully in education. Existing barriers may be related to ethnic, gander, social status, poverty, etc. One of the most excluded groups in educational outcomes is students with disabilities. Schools and other educational services must be flexible in meeting the diversity of students' needs to optimize their potential As already mentioned in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education System. In addition, the 1994 World Conference by UNESCO in Salamanca, Spain, states the "education for all" commitment, this commitment underscores the importance of providing education to children, adolescents and adults needing education in the regular education system and approving educational action frameworks for children with disabilities (Illahi, 2013).10 The model that emerged in the mid-XX century was the mainstreaming model. Learning from the various weaknesses of the segregative model, the mainstreaming model enables various alternative education placements for children with disabilities. Available alternatives ranging from the very free (regular class full) to the most limited (special schools full day). Therefore, this model is also known as the least restrictive environment, meaning that a disabled child must be placed in the most unrestricted environment according to the potential and type or level of abnormality. Children with special needs also need educational institutions to develop their creativity and thinking power. Although mereks are labeled "special needs", basically the educational needs remain the same as other children in general. The government as one of the parts of the public order in this country also does not close the eyes of the existence of children with special needs by establishing special education facilities such as the Intergrated school as well as providing widespread opportunities to the private sector for the campus and build a formal and informal education for children with special needs.
B. Inclusive Educational Basis The application of inclusive education has Pancasila Ideology, Juridical, Pedogogical, and Historical Platform.
Pancasila Ideology Foundation:The ideological foundation of Pancasila which places humanity as the content of the second precepts. Given the nature of humanity, should not the child with special needs be ignored or just caged in helplessness.
Juridical Foundation:It has been clearly stated in Article 31 of the 1945 Constitution that every citizen is entitled to receive instruction. For children with special needs are then applied in the Law of education about extraordinary teaching for those with special needs.
Pedogogical Foundation:In education that has the purpose of developing the personality and ability of learners. This is no exception for anyone including Children with special needs.
Historical Platform In this foundation that evolves from the idea that those who have special needs should be exiled to be educated in order to be able to live with other community order.
Children With Learning Disabilities:
Learning disabilities are a translation of the term English learning disability. The translation is actually inappropriate because learning means learning (learning) and disability means disability (incompetence); so the correct translation should be a learning disability. But it has been agreed that children with learning disabilities are called children with learning disabilities. This is the right term because they are more likely to be incapable than difficult. Children with learning disabilities are interpreted as examples of children who are difficult untill incompetence to accept learning in normal and non-formal because of certain basic psychological abilities. There are children with learning disabilities who are less able to understand and use language and speak so as to influence their reading, writing, arithmetic, and thinking skills.The other meaning of Learning Disabilities (Learning Difficulty) is a condition in which the competence or achievement that is achieved not in accordance with the predefined standard criteria. Such conditions are generally caused by biological or physiological factors, especially with regard to brain function disorders commonly referred to as difficulties in specific learning, as well as psychological factors namely learning disabilities with respect to low motivation and interest in learning. Learning disorders are not only owned by children who have low intelligence,but also caused by several other factors as follows:
1. Physical Factors :
Physical factors are the presence of disorders and abnormalities in the child's physical so that he experienced things that make it difficult to learn. Among the physical factors are the most abnormal factors and brain disorders caused by several factors such as perception disorders, motor disorders, Brain Injury, minimal dysfunction of the brain, dyslexia, and aphasia (speech disorder).
Learning disabilities also available come because of lack of support and situations that allow the child to be able to learn well at home and social environment. For example, in busy parents and do not pay attention to their children in terms of education and lessons of their children. Allowing children to learn and play with the playstation and lazing without doing anything makes the child familiar with this environment. In addition, school environmental factors can also trigger children difficulty in learning. For example, educational institutions that have not maximized attention to good instructional procedures, teachers who always underestimate the students, school assignments are not examined, etc.
3. Psychic and Intellectual Factors:
Logically, a child who has a level of intelligence below the average will have learning disabilities. However, this is not the only cause, other psychic factors such as pent-up emotions, broken home, and interference from friends.
As for the various kinds of dyscalculia there are three, including:
1. Dyslexia: Dyslexia is also known as SPLD (Specific Learning Difficulty).
Dyslexia is a condition that exists within all levels of ability and causes continuous difficulties in acquiring the ability to read and write. Related problems may include sequencing, speech and writing organization, fine motor control, and difficulty in directing motion. The familial link and the degree of difficulty can differ from one individual to another.
Some people see dyslexia as a difference to reading difficulties due to other causes, such as neurological deficiencies in vision or hearing or weakness in understanding reading instructions. There are three cognitive aspects of dyslexic patients: Hearing, Sight, and Caution. Dyslexia affects the development of one's language.
Dyslexic patients will not physically be seen as sufferers. Dyslexia is not only limited to the inability of a person to compose or read sentences in reverse order but also in a variety of sequences, including top to bottom, left and right, and difficult to accept commands that should be continued to the memory of the brain. This is often the cause of dyslexia is considered not concentrated in some ways. In other cases, it was found that the patient could not answer the question as a description,at length.
Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder. Dyscalculia can occur in people from across the whole IQ range - 5% of the time, measurement and spatial reasoning. Estimates of the prevalence of dyscalculia range between 3 and 6% of the population. In 2004, it was reported that a quarter of children with dyscalculia had ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). In 2015, it was established that 11% of children with dyscalculia also have ADHD. Dyscalculia also has been associated with people who have Turner syndrome and people who have spina bifida
Dispraxia is associated with an inability to regulate motion. Dispraxia often shows problems with language, both oral and written. The cause of dyspraxia is considered to be associated with an immature neuronal development.
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