The Mukha (Oral cavity) is considered to be one of the most important part of the Urdhwajatru because it work as the reflector of the body health by acting as gateway of the alimentary canal.
Detailed anatomy of Mukha is not available in Ayurvedic texts. However some description regarding gross anatomy of Mukha is available in different chapters of Sushruta Samhita and other classics.
Pramana - 4 Angulas (open mouth cavity).
Part - 7 As per Sushruta, 8 As per Vagbhatta
According to Sushruta, Mukha comprises of 1. Aushta 2.Dantamula 3. Danta 4. Jihva 5. Talu 6. Kantha and 7. Sarvani.
Vagbhatta has described ‘Ganda’ as eight subsite of Mukha.
Acharya Bhavmishra has considered these seven sites in the chapter ‘Mukharogadhikara’. He used the term ‘Mukhadi Sakalam’ for Sarvani. Vagbhatta has mentioned ‘Sarvavaktra’ and Yogaratnakara have mentioned ‘ GaladiSakalama’ for Sarvani.
Anatomical Parts of Mukha
Hence, an attempt has been made to explain the scientific anatomy of each word as per Ayurvedic classics as mentioned below:
These are two in number viz. Urdhvaaushta and Adharaushta. As it is soft in consistency hence it is included in Matrujabhava.
There are two Peshies in Aushta (Su.Sha.3/43,5/48). Acharya Charaka has described the best sign of Aushta in Dirghayu balaka (Cha.Sha.7/11,8/15 ).
According to Acharya Kashyapa, Dantamula are developed from Rakta Dhatu in the womb of the mother. After birth they grow in shape and get strengthened gradually.
Dashana, Radana, Rada, Dwija, and Kharu are synonyms of Danta. According to the ancient Acharyas, human beings have thirtytwo teeth. Out of them eight are Sakrijjata, the rest are called Dwija. The teeth are composed of Asthi and Majja, hence they are included
Jihva is one in number as a Pratyanga and it originates from Mamsa, Rakta and Kapha. Therefore it is considered as Matrujabhava. There is one sevani in the lower part of Jihva. Jihva is one among the ten Pranayatanas described by ancient Acharyas. Five Snayus have been described in Jhiva. Jihva is the seat of ‘Rasanendriya’ and ‘Vagendriya’. There is one Peshi and thirty-six Siras are Avedhya. Besides Acharyas have described the ‘Sringataka Marma’ which is situated in the middle part of the Siras of Jihva, Nasika and Chakshu (Ch.Sha.7/11, Su.Sha.1/3, 5/48, 6/27, 7/29, As.Sha. 5/57,59, 65, 82).
Acharya Charaka has mentioned Talu as a Pratyanga. According to him two bones take part in the formation of the Talu. But according to Sushruta it is composed by one bone only. He adds that there are two Peshies in relation to Talu (Ch.Sha. 7/6, 11,Su.Sha. 5/21, 48).
Acharya Sushruta has described three Sandhis in relation to Kantha and one Peshi in Gala. Acharya Charaka has mentioned ten Pranayatanas in which Kantha is also included. None of the Acharyas have given a specific anatomical description of the word “Gala”. Almost every Acharya has considered it as a seat of various Gala rogas. (Ch Sha.7/9)
“Sakalam” means the ‘entire’, “whole” i.e. sum total of various sub organs, which are included under the heading of ‘Mukha’. Detailed anatomical description of this word is not available in Samhitas but while describing the disease of Mukha, Acharya Sushruta has described three rogas as ‘Sarvasararoga’ (Su.Ni. 16/4, As. Sa.Ut. 25/68).
The physiological function of Mukha is,
(1) Churning of food particles,
(2) Perception of taste,
(3) Vakpravritti i.e. speech etc.