Kriyakalpa is the basis of the ophthalmic disorders, as Panchkarma is the basis of Kayachikitsa. When we refer to our classics for the therapeutic measures adopted in the management of eye diseases, we find that the management includes many of the topical treatments along with systemic ones. The reason might be that the drugs administered systematically may not cross the blood aqueous, blood-vitreous and blood-retinal barriers. Now the topical measures came into play and these are called as ‘Kriya Kalpas’.
Kriya – √Kri + “Sa” Pratyaya
The variants of which are Aarambha, Shiksha, Nishkriti, Pujana, Sampradharna, Upaya, Karma, Chesta and Chikitsa. Kriya means to do, to perform (or) to practice; the word Kriya refers here to therapeutic procedures, which cures the disease without causing any adverse effects.
Kalpa – √Klrip + “Ghana” Pratyaya – Kalpa
Means practicable, feasible, proper or competent method of curing the diseases or treatment of sick. So, Kalpa indicates the specific formulations adopted for the therapeutic procedures. Hence, the word Kriyakalpa literally means to perform proper treatment.
Definition of Kriyakalpa:
No specific definition of Kriyakalpa has been given by the ancient scholars except the commentator Dalhana who opines that Kriyakalpa includes various preparations like Tarpana, Putapaka etc. for the treatment of eye diseases, as a local measure.
The classification of the drug is made on the basis of their action in the body as well as mode of application on different parts of the body whether locally (or) systematically. Different Acharyas have classified Kriyakalpa according to their own views.
According to Charaka:
Although Charaka Samhita deals with the diseases of the entire body on the medical lines without paying any special reference to the
disorders of the eye, ear, nose and throat. However, some references are available regarding the eye ailments saying that eye disorders should be treated with the help of Anjana, Ashchyotana, Vidalaka and Tarpana. No further details are available with Charaka, in reference to Kriyakalpa viz. their classification as well as method of application.
According to Sushruta:
According to Sushruta there are five types of Kriyakalpa –
According to Vagbhatta:
Vagbhatta while dealing with the diseases of eye has nowhere used the word Kriyakalpa as a mean of treatment. The six varieties according to Vagbhatta are:
According to Sharangadhara :
Acharya Sharangadhara has described the treatment of eye
diseases under the heading of Kalpa. He has described seven types of
Kalpa as :
According to Bhavaprakasha :
Acharya Bhavamishra has meant the same seven types of Kriyakalpa as that of Sharangadhara Samhita.