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Hindu, Hinduism and Hindustan: Part LXXIV
by Dr. Jaipal Singh Bookmark and Share

Peace and War - II

Continued from Part LXXIII

In the previous part, we learnt how our Vedic people had evolved in a society that was based on definite ethics and values based on core virtues of Ahimsa, Satya and associated divine attributes. Accordingly, the highest priority was accorded to the establishment of peace, both external and internal, to the contemporary society and individual beings. While the material possessions and mundane pleasures were recommended for the householders but everyone was expected to understand the transient nature of these things at a certain stage and pursue spiritual growth and evolution for the ultimate peace and bliss in life. While violence of any kind or causing harm to other living beings was considered as Adharma (evil deed) yet it was considered acceptable in self-defense and for a righteous cause. As Kshatriyas class was entrusted with the responsibilities and duties of administration, security and welfare of common people, the contemporary laws permitted them to judiciously punish the evil-doers in society and even indulge in war against any external aggression or during internal conflicts. While establishing Dharma in the society was accorded high merit, Adharma of any kind was considered inglorious and condemnable.

As already explained, Dharma (righteous duty/action) is that, what should be done by the people and Adharma (unrighteous or immoral deed) is that, what should be avoided. Yet another slightly modified word Svadharma is what people were individually expected to exercise in the Vedic societies. For instance, as father one would be expected to provide protection to children and look after their needs till they were mature enough to look after themselves. Similarly, a Guru or teacher was expected to educate pupils according to their class and inclination towards learning habit. The social laws, ethics and values evolved during the Vedic age largely continued in the post-Vedic period too with certain amends as per the need of times. Although there are gaps in the continuity and credible details of the long Indian history owing to certain constraints, yet in the post-Vedic age, the Ramayana and Mahabharata are two most significant periods marked with two Mahamanavas (iconic heroes), namely Sri Ramchandra and Shree Krishna, during which the Hindu civilization had reached a certain zenith, and both periods were also marked with great wars which were fought owing to conflicts of Dharma and Adharma only. In this piece, the author proposes to briefly discuss key reasons of two wars along with Shree Krishna’s discourse on peace and war as recorded in Srimad Bhagavad Gita.

Two Epical Wars in Post-Vedic Period

Two great Indian epics, namely Ramayana and Mahabharata, are the most valuable practical treaties of Hindu ethics and morality, divine and demonic virtues and attributes, conflicts of Dharma and Adharma, discourse on socio-political and religious ethos, including the aspects of peace and war of the contemporary ages. According to the traditional Indian historians, the estimated span of the Ramayana era was 5,677-5577 BCE while the Mahabharata war occurred around 3,162 BCE. On the contrary, majority Western and all leftist Indian historians outrightly treat these events as part of the Indian mythology. Notwithstanding some unexplained gaps, there are umpteen reasons and sufficient cultural, epigraphic and archaeological evidences in the Indian sub-continent, Southeast Asian countries and some other parts of the world to believe that the entities like Kings Sri Ramchandra and Shree Krishna indeed existed and associated events indeed occurred; albeit some exaggerations and supernatural component was probably added in the historical account at some stage, which is not uncommon even in the medieval or modern history. On the other hand, the Western historians have tried to explain the entire Indian civilizational history largely based on some deciphered and undeciphered archaeological records of the Indus Valley Civilization and certain postulations such as Aryan Invasion Theory simultaneously ignoring the entire historical literature in Sanskrit and other ancient languages as fictional.

Both epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were written at different times by different writers with vastly different events and story lines, yet they are alike in several ways. Both the epics were originally written in Sanskrit and later translated and rewritten in various languages by different authors across the world. They provide multiple life lessons and deep insight into the contemporary society, culture, politics, economics, spirituality and religion, many of those concepts and attributes are equally applicable even in the modern age; in addition, both the epics also have a universal appeal for entertainment and education to masses in many ways. In both the epics, the narrative is largely centred on the brothers, both good and evil with divine and demonic attributes respectively. For illustration, In Ramayana, Ram, Lakshman, Bharat and Shatrughan are on the side of Dharma representing divine virtues while Ravan, Kumbhkarn and Vibhishan are symbols of Adharma with the first two having demonic attributes such as inflated ego, lust, anger and greed but the third one with many good virtues. Similarly, in Mahabharata, Pandava brothers Yudhisthir, Bheem, Arjun, Sahdeva and Nakul are on the side of Dharma while Duryodhan, Dushashan and their other ninety-eight brothers are symbols of Adharma.

Whereas the Ramayana is a saga of Sri Ramchandra and his brothers right from their birth to coronation of Ram as King of the Ayodhya kingdom but two events that led to the fierce Lanka war between the forces of Ram and Ravan towards fag end of the former’s journey as forest dweller as also revealing their acts of Dharma and Adharma respectively are briefly enumerated here. According to a puranic account, the final Devasur Sangram (war) was fought between Devas under the command of Kartikeya and Narkasur, the then undisputed leader of Asuras, and the latter was convincingly defeated by the former during this war. Following this war, Asuras became very weak and much later, Ravan, the son of Sage Vishrava and Kaikesi (an Asura princess) regrouped Asuras and related clans of Daitya, Danavas, etc., together to establish a new powerful empire and culture seated at a safe island of Sri Lanka. This new culture was named by Ravan as “Raksha Sanskriti” (Raksha Culture), which means” we protect”t, and the follower of this culture were called Rakshasas. He had chosen Sri Lanka as capital for security reasons due to its distance from northern parts of Indian sub-continent, which was dominated by Devas and Manvas (descendants of Svayambhuva Manu) while large tracts of the central and south India were inaccessible owing to the hill ranges and deep forests. Although Ravan was seated in Sri Lanka but his trusted commanders controlled many tracts of lands in central and south with frequents raids over the inhabitants in these areas.

Towards the last leg of his forest-dwelling span, Sri Ramchandra shifted his temporary abode to Dandakaranya (parts of central-south India) at the request of sages who had established their Ashrams on the banks of River Godavari and in-mates were frequently threatened by Rakshasas for their possessions and life. It was there that the Princess Surpnakha (Ravan’s sister) had a rendezvous and demanded Sri Ram to marry her driven by sheer lust and arrogance. Ram refused to marry her explaining own marital status and, in turn, she conspired to kill Princess Sita (Ram’s wife) organizing a fatal attack on her. In self-defense, duo brothers Ram and Laxman retaliated and punished her by partially severing her ears and nose. In revenge for the disfigurement of his sister, King Ravan abducted Sita, kept hostage in Sri Lanka and coerced her to marry him failing which she will be killed. Needless to mention, aforesaid two events became the immediate cause of conflict between the Manvas and Rakshasas leading to the ferocious Sri Lankan war in which Princess Sita was liberated, King Ravan along with his loyal associates and army was liquidated, and his defected brother Vibhishan was coronated as Lanka King by Sri Ram before returning to Ayodhya. These events encompass peace keeping effort of Prince Ram, waging war on Rakshasas for the righteous cause, commensurate punishment to Surpnakha and her entourage for violations, war on Ravan and associates for unpardonable crime against woman who was also his wife; all such activities permitted by scriptures as part of Manav Dharma (righteous duty).

The overall canvas, coverage, dimension and events in the Mahabharata are of even greater magnitude, which inter alia include the teachings of Shree Krishna as Srmad Bhagavad Gita too, which is considered by many sages and scholars as an epitome and storehouse of all Hindu scriptural knowledge. The story of Mahabhrata revolves around Dharma and Adharma with umpteen instances of righteous actions and violations as well by various characters. The fibrosis of tension and conspiracy starts after younger Prince Pandu is crowned as the king of Hastinapur Empire on eligibility-cum-fitness criteria; the elder brother Dhritrashtra being blind since birth. After Pandu’s death, Dhritrashtra’s elder son Duryodhan staked his claim on throne although Pandu’s son Yudhisthir was elder and lawful successor as per extant rules and tradition. Consequently, Duryodhan with active connivance of his maternal uncle Shakuni and younger sibling Dushashan conspired to humiliate and kill Pandava brothers on many occasions right from childhood. Besides, he also had lust for Panchal Princess Draupadi, who had chosen Pandavas after Prince Arjun successfully met the condition set by her father and Panchal King Drupad. Pandava brothers even established Indraprasth as a separate kingdom for them but, ultimately, Duryodhan captured the throne of Hastinapur and Indraprasth as well through treachery and deception, refused even a few villages for the Pandava brothers in the kingdom. All these events led to the greatest ever war in the Indian history, popularly known as the Mahabharata.


North Wall of Rang Mahal, Mahabharata Panel,
Ellora Caves, Aurangabad Maharashtra (Cave 16)

The war of Mahabharata was undoubtedly the deadliest battle ever fought between the cousins of the same clan viz. Kauravas and Pandavas of the same Chandravanshi Kuru clan of Kshatriyas, who were actively supported by many other sovereign kings of the southeast and western parts of the Old World. Before the war commenced, no stones were left unturned to avoid war and foster peace by the Pandavas camp, the master initiative taken by none other than Shree Krishna himself, who had established himself as the undisputed leader of the Aryavarta by that time so much so that even the most competent warriors and veterans like Bhishma and Dronacharya listened to him with due consideration. Shree Krishna volunteered as a peace messenger in the court of Hastinapur and advised the caretaker King Dhritrashtra to grant a minimum of five villages in the kingdom where the Pandava brothers could independently live in peace. In his passionate yet articulated discourse, he told everyone present that war on account of ego, animosity and hatred would not do any good to either side but leave behind only a huge trail of dead and property loss. However, Duryodhan not only arrogantly refused his peace overtures but also made a futile effort of detaining Shree Krishna in a foolish move.

Thus despite earnest desire of peace wished by the elders in Kuru clan and Pandava brothers, the devastating and ruinous war indeed took place that went on for eighteen days during which warriors and soldiers of both sides were almost entirely liquidated sans a few survivors including Shree Krisna, Pandava brothers, and a few warriors on either sides. The Kaurvas enormously outnumbered Pandavas, both in terms of warriors, soldiers and war equipment before the onset of war but Dharma (righteousness) was on the latter’s side. Even Shree Krishna could not remain neutral as he was closely related to both sides; so his contingent of elite guards (Narayani Sena) joined it from the Kaurava side while he stayed with Pandavas to guide and advise them with a resolve that he himself would not use a weapon during war. The warriors such as Bhishma, Drona, Karna, and many more on Kaurava side were invincible as long as they carry their favourite weapons. Therefore, certain tricks were needed to deal with such warriors and Shree Krishna himself justified this to establish Dharma in a war with Adharma. As explained earlier, the concept of Dharma as evolved during the Vedic age was religiously followed even by Sri Ram during the Ramayana age, a reason why he is remembered as Maryada Purushottama (One who sticks to established values). However, Shree Krishna evolved a more pragmatic view and approach to deal with evil-doers to establish Dharma. At the onset of war in Kurushetra, Prince Arjuna revealed his feeble heartedness that made Shree Krishna to reveal his mind on politics, war, peace, spirituality, and a host of other topics with a motive of persuading him to join Dharma-yudha; the compendium this universal wisdom and knowledge is now collectively known as Srimad Bhagavad Gita.

Srimad Bhagavad Gita on Peace and War

The Bhagavad Gita has received a worldwide acceptance as an epitome of knowledge and a compendium embodying the essence of the Vedas and Principal Upanishads unraveling the supreme spiritual mystery and gems of Hindu philosophy. This is one Hindu scripture on which many ancient seers and scholars of Vedic knowledge such as Adi Sankara, Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, etc., who are also propounder of various Vedanta philosophies, had chosen to write detailed commentaries; in addition, it has also been translated and interpreted by the scholars in almost all languages in the world. The essential form and character, virtues, glory, purpose and mystery of the cosmic truth of Brahman (God) and Atman (soul) as also the yoga of action, knowledge and devotion is incorporated in Gita in such a way that one would not find a parallel text elsewhere. The Gita is part of the Bhismaparva of the epic Mahabharata, which has been presented in a narrative framework of dialogue between Prince Arjun and his mentor, friend and charioteer Shree Krishna.

During the epical war of Mahabharata, Shree Krishna drives the chariot on request made by Arjun midst the warriors of the two warring sides. Seeing his most venerated elders like Bhisma, Dronacharya and beloved kin and warriors in the battlefield ready to fight and kill each-other, Arjun is infatuated and overwhelmed with utter grief and delusion. He even drops his weapons and expresses his earnest desire to withdraw from the battle. It is at this stage that like a true saviour, Shree Krishna delivers a discourse on the ultimate TRUTH of the universe inter alia highlighting whole range of material and spiritual knowledge telling Arjun that he must perform his manly duty of a Kshatriya through a sincere and truthful engagement in the imminent war to establish Dharma (righteousness). What transpired as a private conversation between Shree Krishna and Prince Arjun in Kurushetra just before the beginning of epic war was subsequently compiled and revealed to the world by Sage Vedavyas. The narratives of Bhagavad Gita have been interpreted by many worthy scholars as allegory of the eternal ethical and moral struggles of the human life including aspects of real peace and mandatory war. Shree Krishna’s discourse on war and peace is briefly discussed in the following paragraphs.

About War

When Arjun realizes that he is pitted against many of his respected elders, blood-relatives and friends in the battle-field, he is appalled and dismayed that he would be killing whom he loved so dearly. Thus overcome with deep compassion and sorrow, he confessed to Shree Krishna that his mouth was getting dried, limbs giving away and hands no longer able to hold divine bow, Gandiva, and mind swirling with utter confusion and chaotic thoughts. He exclaimed that he did not covet victory or kingdom over the loss of the lives of his own kinsmen, including teachers, brothers, uncles, sons and nephews, or even maternal uncles, grand uncles, great grand uncles, brother-in-law, and all other relations. Also that he did not want to fight with or kill them even for the sovereignty over the three worlds, and even though they in turn might slay him. With this nemesis, eyes filled with tears and mind agitated with sorrow and disappointment, Arjun simply abandoned his bow and arrows and chose to sink into the hinder part of his chariot.

To rescue Prince Arjun from his deluded and disillusioned state, Shree Krishna, in his discourse, initially reminded him of the need for conducting like a man shaking off faint-heartedness, reminded him of the perishable nature of body as soul being the real entity with its eternal and immortal nature and lastly reminded him of the Dharma (righteous duty) of a Kshatriya, who as a warrior must engage in war against enemy to establish Dharma. After taking the discourse from mundane to spiritual horizon, Krishna told Arjun that a Kshatriya should be happy to get an opportunity for a righteous war because in performance of his righteous duty if he was killed he would enjoy the bliss of heaven (liberation) while a victory in war would make him entitled for the comforts of earthly kingdom for lifelong. He must, therefore, take part in the battle with determination without worrying for the outcome keeping an equipoise mind through happiness and sorrow, gain and loss, or victory and defeat.

 

Swa-dharmam api chavekshya na vikampitum arhasi,
Dharmyaddhi yuddhach chhreyo ’nyat kshatriyasya na vidyate.

(Besides, considering your duty as a warrior, you should not falter. Indeed, for a warrior, there is no better engagement than fighting for upholding of righteousness.) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 31)

Atha chet tvam imam dharmyam sangramam na karishyasi,
Tatah sva-dharmam kirtim cha hitva papam avapsyasi.

(If, however, you refuse to fight this righteous war, abandoning your social duty and reputation, you will certainly incur sin.) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 33)

According to the contemporary social ethos, it was the Swadharma (occupational duty) of a Kshatriaya (warrior) to protect the rights (life and property) of citizens from oppression of the evil-doers and also to fight in self-defense. This inter alia necessitated punishment to evil-doers by application of violence in genuine cases to maintain law and order for the welfare of society and country. So naturally, if a warrior like Arjun shirked his bounden duty, it would be considered as a sinful act on his part. In yet another verse, Shree Krishna justified war for the sake of a righteous duty as under.

Sukha-duhkhe same kritva labhalabhau jayajayau,
Tato yuddhaya yujyasva naivam papam avapsyasi.

(Fight for the sake of duty, treating happiness and distress, loss and gain, victory and defeat in the same way. Fulfilling your responsibility in this way, you will never incur sin.) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 38)

This took many more words of wisdom and knowledge from Shree Krishna in an endeavour to make him realize the relevance and necessity of war; needless to mention, enlightened Arjun finally got ready to go for the war in Kurushetra treating it his righteous duty. While justifying violence for a Kshatriya’s participation in war, Shree Krishna had to go to another extreme by revealing that there are times when even God has to manifest in the world to protect Dharma and good people when the evil forces are on rise dominating the world.

Yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata,
Abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srijamyaham.

Paritranaya sadhunam vinashaya cha dushkritm,
Dharma-sansthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge.

(Whenever there is a decline in righteousness and an increase in unrighteousness, O Arjun, at that time I manifest myself on earth. To protect the righteous, to annihilate the wicked, and to re-establish the principles of dharma I appear on this earth, age after age.) (BG: Chapter 4, Verse 7-8)

Shree Krishna is widely accepted as a manifest of Brahman (God), Who is responsible for all creation, sustenance and withdrawal in this universe. While “Ahimsa Parmo Dharma” finds mention in Epic Mahabharata at many places with certain caveats, the statement is not repeated even once in Srimad Bhagavad Gita. Shree Krishna has justified violence and war on enemy and evil-doers in self-defense and/or for any righteous cause. In justification of the war on the evil forces, Shree Krishna hinted that even God has to manifests Himself in the world for the safety and welfare of the mankind.

About Peace

Like many other ancient scriptures, the Bhagavad Gita too accords high value and significance to peace, both mundane (external or worldly) and transcendental (internal or spiritual). In his discourse to Prince Arjun, Shree Krishna did talk about the Varna System and Purushartha and endorsed external peace for householders through material possessions and worldly pleasures but it is the internal peace that, according to Him, is real and permanent, and should be ultimate goal in life. Here two verses from Gita are quoted which are, in a way, complementary to each other.

Prasade sarva-duhkhanam hanir asyopajayate,
Prasanna-chetaso hyashu buddhih paryavatishthate.

(By divine grace comes the peace in which all sorrows end, and the intellect of such a person of tranquil mind soon becomes firmly established in God.) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 65)

Nasti buddhir-ayuktasya na chayuktasya bhavana,
Na chabhavayatah shantir ashantasya kutah sukham.

(He, who has not controlled the mind and senses, can neither have a resolute intellect nor steady contemplation on God. One without a resolute mind can have no peace; and how can there be happiness for one lacking peace of mind?) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 66)

In the earlier verse, value is assigned to the divine grace which leads to the stability of mind mandatory for experiencing eternal peace and permanent bliss. And by God’s grace, when the person experiences higher level of the divine bliss, the agitation of mind owing to sensual pleasures suo moto extinguishes. Once the cravings for the material objects ceases, one is free from worldly temptations and sufferings. This state of a tranquil mind becomes the ultimate source of inner fulfillment and real freedom. In other words, Krishna means ‘know God; know peace’. In the latter verse, a higher value is assigned to the need for the control of mind and senses for steady contemplation to God and, in turn, blessed with His grace. On face, the two verses apparently seem to carry inherent contradiction yet in reality both are complementary to each other. Krishna says that too much material indulgence entangles the person in the tight grip of Maya and consequent imminent miseries. Material desires are like eczema because more people indulge in them, the worse becomes their life.

Shree Krishna accorded greater relevance and importance to a stable or equipoise mind and there are numerous verses highlighting the virtue and value that one acquires owing to this attribute. A stable mind is mandatory to achieve permanent peace and bliss and to achieve it the control of senses is necessary. According to Krishna, the senses are turbulent by nature capable enough to forcibly carry away the mind of even sages and wise men already practicing self-control. In a specific query about a person with a tranquil or equipoise mind, Krishna said that the person who is free from all cravings of mind and satisfied with self with the joy of self is the one with stable mind. Such a man remains unpurturbed through sorrow and joy, his thirst for pleasures has entirely vanished and he is free from ego, passion, anger and fear. In short, he is unattached to everything, neither rejoices nor laments at any time. As the tortoise withdraws its limbs from all directions, same way a person with stable mind withdraws his senses from all the sense-objects and acquiring the status of a God-realized soul with an equipoised mind (BG: 2.54-58). In yet another verse, Shree Krishna recommended the following as a mantra for spiritual peace.

Apuryamanam achala-pratishtham samudram apah pravishanti yadvat,
Tadvat kama yam pravishanti sarve sa shantim apnoti na kama-kami.

(Just as the ocean remains undisturbed by the incessant flow of waters from rivers merging into it, the wise person who remains unruffled despite flow of sensory objects around him attains peace, and not the person who strives to satisfy desires.) (BG: Chapter 2, Verse 70)

During his discourse, Krishna had repeatedly emphasized the need of inner peace without which no person can achieve his (or her) ultimate goal in life that would come only through the control of all senses and by stopping cravings for the material objects associated with sensual pleasure and gratification. Constant hankering for the sensory objects only leads to an ever-increasing agitation and restlessness of mind with peace remaining ever elusive. Of many, only two more verses from the later chapters are quoted here in the same context.

Shraddhavanllabhate jnanam tat-parah sanyatendriyah,
Jnanam labdhva param shantim achirenadhigachchhati.

(Those whose faith is deep and who have practiced control on mind and senses attain divine knowledge. Through such transcendental knowledge, they quickly attain everlasting supreme peace.) (BG: Chapter 4, Verse 39)

A little later, Shree Krishna goes a step further to link the stable mind to the eternal peace. The person who attains eternal peace is said to be a God-realized person i.e. he has learnt the Truth (Brahman) and hence a liberated soul. Such a person is completely free from lust and anger having successfully subdued his mind. The common attributes of a person having attained the eternal peace are: He is happy within himself enjoying the delight of soul; his sins have been purged, his doubts dispelled by knowledge, he is devoted to the welfare of all, and his disciplined mind is firmly established in God.

Labhante brahma-nirvanam rishayah kshina-kalmashah,
Chhinna-dvaidha yatatmanah sarva-bhuta-hite ratah.

{Those sages, whose sins have been purged, whose doubts are annihilated, whose minds are disciplined, and who are devoted to the welfare of all beings, attain Supreme Peace (God) and are liberated from material existence.} (BG: Chapter 5. Verse 25)

Epilogue

During the Vedic age, relevant social laws, ethics and values were evolved by the socio-religious scientists (Rishis), which inter alia included the provision of Varnashrama and Purushartha. Householders were permitted to earn money and material things through legal means and enjoy the comfort of these possessions along with the family in a peaceful manner. However, such a happiness and peace was considered as temporary and transient with the recommendation that everyone should strive for the eternal peace at any stage of life or preferably after living the life of a householder for a certain period. For the eternal or inner peace, it is considered necessary for the person to keep own sensory organs in check so as to effectively control desire for the material objects and negative attributes such as ego, anger, lust, greed, and so on. Such a control is possible through the yogas of action, knowledge and devotion, ways and means of which are recorded in the Bhagavad Gita as a discourse from Shree Krishna to Prince Arjun in Kurushetra. According to Shree Krishna, effort of every practitioner should be to achieve a stable or equipoise mind, which is indeed possible through yogic practices. A person with stable mind will remain unshaken through joy and sorrow, loss and gain, or victory and defeat. Fulfilling his responsibility in this manner, a person will never incur sin. Such a person is said to be a God-realized soul having achieved the ultimate goal of life.

Hindu scriptures underline the core precepts of Ahimsa and Satya along with many other divine virtues as the Hindu way of life. All Vedic scriptures and Bhagavad Gita as well endorse non-violence but also justify violence or war for self-defense and to fight injustice and evil forces posing serious threat to the society. According to Vedic scriptures and Bhagavad Gita, no sin will be incurred while punishing or killing the aggressors and terrorists. However, the essential caveats are that violence and war shall be avoided through a sincere and truthful dialogue. Despite this if the war becomes imminent, the application of force (i.e. response) must be measured and proportionate, as also punishment to evil-doer should be commensurate with the violations incurred. The wisdom and knowledge thus imparted by Vedic Hindu scriptures and sages is followed till date. Accordingly, as a civilization and nation, India has avoided attack on any other country or community in the world with any selfish motive or land/material gain. The classical examples of the aforesaid practice followed by India in the modern age could be two wars of 1965 and 1971 with the ever hostile neighbour Pakistan; the former war was fought in self-defense to thwart the evil design of the enemy to forcibly grab Jammu & Kashmir, an integral part of India, and the latter war became unavoidable to save mankind in Bangladesh from the atrocities of Pakistani army indulged in mass killing of people (genocide), rape and enslavement of women, and loot and destruction of property mostly of Hindus living in Bangladesh.

To be continued...

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25-Sep-2022
More by :  Dr. Jaipal Singh
 
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