Sikhism-Hinduism Philosophical Relationship-2

Continued from Previous Page 

Sikhism is not a Revelatory Religion

Sikhism is a realizational religion and not a revelatory religion. In some religions the spiritual Truth is revealed to some chosen person or persons by God. In a realizational religion, the Supreme One is not revealed by some one to some one else, but, the Supreme One is realized [74] by the seeker himself; his own Self is the Supreme One.

The Moolamantra

Guru Granth Sahib opens with the Moolamantra (root-mantra; Seed-mantra) which is

'Ik-onkaara Sati-Naamu Karataa Purakhu Nirbhau Nirwairu Akaala - Moorati Ajuni Saibham Guraparasaadi .[75]'

Its meaning is as follows:

Ik-onkaara[76]: He is the One Reality (described above) and there is nothing else. 'Onkaara' is the aural form of 'Om', the symbol, par excellence, of that One Reality. Amongst Hindus most of mantras or sacred songs or actions begin with the word 'Om' [77] or 'Onkaara'. 'Onkaara' itself is a powerful mantra for chanting His name.

Sati-Naam: Sat means Pure Existence [78], that never changes and therefore Sat also means 'True'. Naam (also Sabada [79]) means 'Name'. Sati-Naam therefore means His name is Truth [80] or 'Pure Existence [81]'.

Karataa Purakhu [82]: He is the Creator and the Doer of all that happens in the sense that every thing happens as per the divine laws [83] as promulgated by Him.

Ajuni [84]: Not born, without a cause, He has always been there and will remain so. He is the cause of all causes. [85]

Nirbhau [86] Nirwaira: He is fearless and has no enemy not only because He is all powerful but also because there is no one else, so no one else to fear or to create enmity with.

Akaala-Moorati: He is formless. His form is beyond time. He is not bounded by space or time [87]. He created space and time.

Saibham: He is His own creator. He has no beginning.

Guraparasaadi: He is realizable through the grace of Guru [88].

The Moolmantra means: 'The Reality is One Onkaara, whose name is ever True; He is the Creator, Fearless, without enmity, whose form is beyond time, who is without birth, Self created and can be known through the grace of the enlightened Preceptor (Guru).

Devotional Path

Devotional path in GGS stipulates that a devout lovingly surrenders himself to Parabrahma [89], understands the law of Karataa Purakha, fears [90] Him, and chants His name in his heart meditating on Him. How can such an activity take anyone to realization of Absolute Being? How [91] can one love anyone who cannot be seen, heard, touched, etc.? Guru Nanak says that chanting of Sat-Naama, the True Name, is a means to subdue one's ego and to explore lovingly that Reality. Guru Nanak asked the devotees to chant, either singly or in a group of similar devotees ('Satsangat' [92]). His path of devotion demands love of Parabrahma expressed through chanting aloud or in the mind. He advised certain modes of devotion like praising His qualities [93], feeling to be His servant [94], listening and remembering His Name all the time [95] and 'Kaantaa Bhakti' [96] viz. love the Supreme One as intensely as a devoted and loving wife does, and who cannot bear any separation [97] from her husband. What happens while chanting lovingly and continuously is that the devotee's mind gets merged with the 'Naam' and his mind does not remain a play ground for unnecessary desires [98], memories and thoughts, and gradually his mind becomes pure [99]. With continuous and devoted chanting a time comes when the devotee suddenly crosses his wakeful state and jumps to 'Tureeya [100]' (4th state of consciousness) the transcendental state, the state beyond thoughts. Parabrahma is beyond thoughts [101]. Normally, all the time our mind or consciousness is covered by thoughts or desires which keep on motivating us [102]. Our mind is like a clouded sky in which one cannot see the sun. But let the clouds pass, the sun shines bright and surely. Similarly, when from the sky of the mind clouds of desires [103] etc. pass away, the mind becomes pure, and one, 'experiences' Reality or Aananda [104] (Bliss). Devout persons remain, now and hereafter, in Bliss [105].

The Guru's Grace [106]:

This process of Naam Simarana cannot be described appropriately for a disciple to follow; therefore he needs guidance of the Guru. The process is full of obstacles and enemies which are created by one's mind. It is rather difficult to control one's mind. Guru Nanak, understanding the difficulty of a common man, kept the description in the GGS very simple. Therefore the Guru becomes essential for guidance in the process [107] and finally for giving grace. As one is required to jump to a state which is well beyond the normal states of consciousness, only efforts are not sufficient for this jump. One, by his efforts, goes up to the quiet border of the two states, waking and transcendent, and waits there to be pulled by that 'tureeya' state; this pulling up is The Guru's final grace.

Five Enemies

In the path of Naam Simarana, (indeed in any of the four paths) there are five enemies [108] viz. Kaama [109] (desire inclusive of lust), Krodha (anger), Lobha (greed), Haum' [110] (self-centered ego, arrogance and conceit, now onwards just ego), and Moha [111] (excessive attachment or obsession or delusion). There are six enemies as per Hindu scriptures, sixth being jealousy. Most of the time our mind's sky is covered with the clouds of desires, therefore we cannot 'see' our 'Self'. Therefore desires are obstacles. When fulfillment of a desire is threatened or our ego is hurt, then anger arises and those clouds become dark and therefore we cannot chant and therefore cannot hope to 'see' our Self. Not only this, in a rage we get obsessed by that anger, our memory gets distorted, our intellect is disabled, and then only disaster can take place. Therefore anger is our strong enemy. Greed intensifies the effect of desires and therefore darkens those clouds, and also distorts our critical ability. Moha (obsession) focuses on one object of desire to the detriment of others. Obsession obviously distorts the field of vision, and therefore of reality. Haum' (self-centered ego) provides the 'horse power' of the emotional engine; hence it strengthens the base of all other enemies. Therefore it is probably the most powerful enemy to contend with. Selfless service and virtuous deeds [112] are highly recommended for they subdue one's ego, ennoble a man and help him in his spiritual progress. Force of the five enemies to distract and disturb weakens with sincere practice of service to humanity, and by listening to relevant scriptures and Naam Simarana. Force of the enemies gradually vanishes with consistent and loving meditation. It is then that one is ready to receive the final grace from The Guru.


Apart from the philosophical concepts that have been discussed above there are many gems available in Japuji. Guru Nanak urges not to fight others, to fight your mind [113]. People ought to fear Parabrahma for the divine laws would punish the non-virtuous [114]. At the same time for virtuous persons there is no need to fear [115]. Santa Trilochana says, 'The path of devotion that you (a devotee) must walk is dark and tough, for there is no light from the sun or the moon." [116]

Realized Person

Realization of Brahman through Naam Simarana is neither a mechanical drill nor a matter of faith condemned to remain blind. One can realize Ik-onkaara, the Eternal Bliss [117]; unite with Parabrahma, after which one is known as 'Brahma-gyaanee [118]'. Whoever realizes Brahman becomes Brahman [119]. A realized person has no selfish motives; he is overflowing with love [120]. He only wishes to serve the humanity [121]. He looks after his body only to serve needy persons. He is not disturbed by successes and failures, likes and dislikes, pleasures and pains [122], nor does he fear the five enemies. He is contented, peaceful, still [123] and happy. Having attained that state, Guru Nanak says, 'I cannot see anything except the Name' [124].

Some Differences

Some Differences: Before a summary is made, a look at some differences may be desirable.

One major difference is that Sikhism has a militant element albeit for defence. It is not that in Hinduism there is no militancy for defence; but the authority for religious and defence activities are with two different institutions. In Sikhism such authority is with the Guru. Sikhism was forced to take to militancy when the Mughal kings started persecuting Sikhs. It was when the Fifth Guru was put to death by the Mughal Emperor Jehangir that it was decided that 'peeree' (religious authority) should be accompanied by 'meeree' (defence authority). The Tenth Guru gave this concept a proper shape and discipline. Among other disciplines, the five visible 'kakaars' (external symbols) i.e. hairs (turbans), sword etc. were introduced.

The strangle hold of casteism is not as strong as in Hinduism, but the demon has not been eradicated.

Ritualism has also lost some of its force, but it does exist, as a bath in the sacred pool of Gurudwaaraa at Amritsar is considered pious, and a visit to this Gurudwaaraa is considered a pilgrimage. To become a 'Khalsa' one has to go through a ritual - 'Khande Da Pahul' in which sweetened water is given to initiate the person. It only proves that rituals are essential in life, but as Guru Nanak has proclaimed that they ought to be performed sincerely and devotedly.

The differences between Hinduism and Sikhism are not in philosophy but in appearance, and some in the practice of casteism and ritualism.

Relationship with Hinduism

Aim of both Sikhism and Advaitic Hinduism is not to secure heaven or even a better life in the next birth, but to secure happiness here and now and attainment of the supreme One, Parabrahma, infinite Bliss hereafter. There are various names of Brahman, the Supreme One used in Hindu scriptures, by which Guru Nanak has also addressed Him. Some of them are, Onkaara, Parabrahma, Brahman [125], Satnaam, Aatman, Truth, Gobinda, Daamodara, Rama, 'Nirankaara [126] ' (Formless), Naam, Shiva [127], etc. Upanishadic seers never recommended rituals for 'realization [128]' and did not condemn the worship of various deities, but informed the believers the limitations thereof and then led them to the infinite Bliss [129]. Similarly, with the same synthesizing attitude, Guru Nanak used the same names liberally to convey the utter unity of Gods in Non-dual (Advaita) and Dual (Dvaita) systems of thoughts.
Let us also take the symbol of One Reality - 'Ik-onkaara' or 'Aum'. This is the first syllable of the Moolamantra and the most fundamental statement of GGS. Aum is one of the oldest symbols of the Self or Parabrahma in Hindu scriptures [130], e.g. Vedas or Upanishads [131]. Guru Nanak says, the god Brahma was born from Onkaara, and then nature i.e. space and time etc. were born, and then Onkaara created Vedas [132]. This hymn is not much different from what is described in Vedas [133].
Guru Nanak uses the authority of Vedas [134] to explain his philosophy of devotion. He asks the disciples to meet and listen to the Vedas [135], 'Smrities', the six scriptures, and 'Puraanas', and meditate on Brahman to attain Him. He goes to the extent of stating, 'Those who read and recite Vedas etc. without a The Guru would have doubts and therefore would not understand the Reality, they would earn sorrow and misery.' [136]  One, who understands the fundamentals of Vedas etc., realizes the Supreme here and now. And if such an enlightened person preaches everyone regardless of their castes etc, then The Guru Nanak would salute him' [137]. He further says that wisdom for persons of all castes lies in performing their duties, but he who knows that the path of devotional chanting is the same for all, he serves Him, he indeed becomes the Supreme One.[138]
It has been shown that faiths and important philosophical concepts used by Guru Nanak are the same as used in various Hindu scriptures for 'Advaitic' and devotional school. [139] It may be borne in mind that Hinduism has three other schools for the same goal.
After realizing the Supreme One, Guru Nanak had chosen these philosophical concepts from many existing in Hindu scriptures based on his experience. He emphasized greatly the faith in 'equality of humans. Upanishadic seers were not bound by castes [140]. When Upanishadic teachings were being forgotten, The Guru Nanak made Hindus conscious of the demon of casteism and ritualism that were eating away the roots of Hindu society. Above all, he simplified the devotional process of 'Naam Simarana' of the 'Advaitic School of philosophy' of Hinduism, in a period when devotion as per the 'Dualism' or as per 'Dualism ' Non-dualism' was gaining popularity. The Guru gave to the people of his time and for future, in their language, a devotional method, which is extremely simple and practical, and leads to the Advaitic union with Brahman, the Supreme One, and brings peace and happiness not only to the devout but also in the society, indeed in the world.

May 2, 2002

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1. Naarada Bhakti Sootra
2. Guru Naanaka had condemned Babar's attack and way of ruling.
3. Hindus had become rather self - centered, and kings were fighting among themselves. Despite advanced sciences available, they were not developing new weapons, or new strategies suiting the times. Time and again they used elephants for defence not realizing that against the superior cavalry of invaders, elephants could become a handicap. This militarily successful invasion of an alien force was also an attack on Hindu Dharma because of their (invader's) missionary zeal. Consequently Hindus were finding themselves at loss.
4. Although considerable progress has been made, Hindus have not been able to resolve this problem fully satisfactorily yet, despite Mahatma Gandhi's efforts and rule of democracy. There are broadly speaking two aspects of casteism ; inhuman treatment and social segregation. By and large inhuman treatment is withering away, social uplift is taking place, but intercaste marriages with the lowest castes are not taking place.
5. Yoga means union with Supreme Reality or Brahman. The prefix indicates the method which such a union is attained. E.g. Jnaana Yoga means yoga attained through spiritual knowledge. This path involves obtaining knowledge from scriptures, contemplating and understanding that knowledge, listening discourses on it, and meditating (different method of meditation than chanting).
6. Karma Yoga means realizing Him by becoming free of desires through 'desireless actions'.
7. Patanjali recommends an eight point 'yogic' method, described in Paatanjali Yoga Sootra.
8. Paatanjali Yoga Sootra ' Samadhi Paada - 23 & 27 to 29.
9. Santa is a devotee of the highest order who may convey his spiritual experiences and feelings through prose, poetry and oration. Saint may not always be an appropriate translation of Santa in to English.
10. Kamat's Potpourri;
11. See website ' Kamat's Potpourri : Bhakti ' Saint Ramanand
12. Japuji - 51 -11, 64 ' 9, 68 ' 17, GGS ' 98 ' 8&9,102 ' 17 to 19.
13. D.G., Bichitra Naataka,5th chapter,1.4, 3.4; GSS 470.8; Guru Naanaka says in GGS (983-12) I found out that Shastras and Sage Narada proclaimed that in the devotee's congregation by chanting the Name Moksha is attained.
14. Japuji ' 2-8, 2-19, 57-14, 59-8, 84-4
15. Japuji ' 43 ' 13 & 14.
16. Guru Nanak says, 'Know the 'Light', do not enquire someone's caste, for there is no caste of the Enlightened. N.B.S. 41 & 72 also tells the same truth.
17. Japuji ' 2-11, 56-8
18. N.B.S. 9 (Any action that does not lead to evotion is to be avoided)
19. Japuji ' 84 -1&2
20. GGS ' 1362 -11 ' Bathing in the Sacred Raam Daasa pool (now Amritsar) sins are washed away.
21. Japuji ' 3-10
22. GGS ' 1361 -4.
23. Japuji ' 3-6, 11; 4-6,
24. GGS ' 98 -8&9; 102 ' 17 to 19; Kathopani. 1.3.9.
25. Jaimineeya Upanishada Braahmana ' 1.14.2; Kathopani. 2.1.12 & 13. Ishopani. ' 15 & 16; Geetaa '11. 15 to 24.
26. Pantha means both, the 'Path' and its followers
27. Santa is a devotee of highest order who may convey his spiritual experiences and feelings through prose, poetry and oration. Saint may not always be an appropriate translation of Santa into English.
28. GGS ' O, you self hypnotized Musk Deer, listen to this profound statement ' first know the merchandise well that you want to purchase, and then trade in it.'
29. Japuji ' 3- 6 to 3-11
30. Japuji ' 2.13, 27.5, 93.15; also Shwetaashwatara Upani. (now onwards S.Upani.) 3-2 to 4, 4 -2 to 5; Mundak Upani. -2.2.12;
31. GGS ' 104 -1; 98 -7&8;
32. Japuji ' 39 -4, 85 -4&5; GGS '96 -9; 274 -2; Ishopani 1; Chhandogya Upani. (now onwards Chh. Upani.) ' 6.2.1&2.
33. Japuji- 60-13; Ishopani-16
34. Japuji ' 2-6, 39-4, 85-4 Chh. Upani.-3.14.1
35. GGS -1427 -14; 1429 -3;
36. GGS -1429 -2 (the world as such is not false in the sense of not being real, but false because it is ever changing and ephemeral ' and that is what Hindu scriptures have claimed. The word 'mithyaa' has been misunderstood as false, instead of 'changing and ephemeral'.
37. Prash. Upani. 5.7.
38. Japuji- 1.5, 51-13, 68-6, 68-7 to 17; GGS ' 1034 ' 18&19; Taittireetya Upani. (now onwards Tai. Upani.) -2.4.1.
39. Japuji ' 33 -6; 39 -2; GGS ' 112 -18, 113.2;
40. GGS ' 1034 -18&19.
41. GGS ' 1362 -3
42. Br.Upani ' 3.8.9
43. Ishopani. 4&5; Kenopani. 1.3; Mundaka Upani. 2.2.10; Kathopani. 1.2.19;;Chhand.Upani.7.24.1; Br.Upani. 3.4.2;Tai. Upani.2.4.1; Geetaa 13-12, 2- 46, 4-24, 7-19, 9-15,
44. Japuji ' 2-9; GGS- 1021-16(Hecannot be kown by reading Vedas or books); Kena Upani.-2.3; Mundaka Upani- 2.2.1,3.2.3; Kathopani. 1.2.9; 1.2.12;
45. Japuji ' 27-5, 58-10; GGS -1035 ' 5; Ishopani 3; Kathopani; 2.1.11, 2.2.7. '
46. Japuji ' 38-19; 50-7, 66-8
47. Japuji -2-5, 58-9; GGS ' 1362 -3.
48. Japuji ' 85 ' 6; Mundaka Upani. 3.2.9; Kathopani. 2.3.14&15, Ishopani. 11,14; Brihadaaranyaka (now onwards Bri.) Upani. 3.9.28; Tai. Upani. 2.4.1;
49. GGS ' 1362 -4; Kathopani. 2.3.14&15;
50. Mundaka Upani.-2.2.1; Tai Upani.-2.4.1;
51. Mundaka Upani. 1.2.7-11; Chhand.Upani. 1.12&13
52. Mundaka Upani. ' 2.2.4
53. Japuji ' 61-17; GGS ' 1035 -3; Kathopani.1.2.23; Mundaka Upani. 3.1.10, 3.2.3; Tejbindu - 6; Kathopani. 1.2.8&9,
54. Guru is a technical word in Sikhism, as it means Ik'onkaara or One Reality and also a person who has realized Him.
55. Japuji -61-7
56. Japuji -16-4; 27-3, 60-2 to 6; also N.B.S.9, 10.
57. Japuji ' 73-3; N.B.S.19&21; Geetaa 4-4.
58. Japuji ' 30-10 to 13, 50-7, 56-8, 60-17, 61-18, 67-3, 83-5; GGS -1427 -15&16, 18 ;
59. Kathopani. 2.4.1.
60. Japuji ' 27-5, 67-3
61. Japuji ' 27 -17, 28 -8, 29 -7, 10,
62. Japuji ' 27 -6, 28 -7, 28 -11, 29 -5, 8, 9
63. Aadi Shankara defines it in his treatise 'Tattwa Bodha'; Geetaa - 45
64. Japuji ' 30 - 10, 11 &13, 60-17, 67-6, 73-2; GGS -632 -19;
65. Japuji ' 27.17; Kathopani.- 1.2.24.
66. Japuji ' 2.15;
67. GGS -1428.1; Mundaka -3.2.9;
68. Japuji ' 68-2
69. Japuji ' 73-4, 84-13
70. Japuji ' 68-14, 68-17; Maandookya (Maand) Upani. 6.
71. GGS ' 111 -15; Mundaka Upani. 3.2.9. Kathopani. ' 2.1.15.
72. Japuji -46-9; Ishopani. 1, 11; Chha.Upani. 6.2.2;
73. Japuji ' 2.6, 39.4, GGS 785 ' 3; Kathopani. 2.2.13;
74. Japuji- 2.18, 33.3, 43.14 Kathopani. 2.3.14, Br. Upani. 4.4.7.
75. Prashnopani-5.7.
76. GGS ' 1361 -6; see note 98.
77. It is clearly stated in Hindu scriptures that 'in the beginning was the word (sabada means word), and the word was 'Aum' (Om)'.
78. Br. Upani. 'Sanmaatram hi Brahman'.' Sat i.e. Pure Existence is Brahman.
79. Japuji ' 4-7&8, 58-9,
80. Japuji ' 58-7; GGS -1035 -2
81. In 'Sat-Chit-Aananda' which is one of the few phrases that describes what the indescribable Brahman is, Sat means 'Absolute Being, Pure Existence,; Chit means absolute Consciousness; and Aananda means 'Bliss'. This 'Trinity' is always together. Meaning of the word 'Sat' has evolved through long period of time. In one 'richa' (a couplet in Rig-Veda -1.164.46) Sat means various gods like 'fire, god of death, etc. In Chha.Upani. (6.2.2) 'Sat' has been explained ' 'In the beginning there was only Sat and no other. From 'Sat' only the universe is created.
82. Purakha is the Punjabee version of Sanskrit 'Purusha', meaning one who lives in a city, in this case city of mind, body and intellect; therefore it means the Atman or Brahman. As per Kathopanishada (1.3.11) Parabrahma in His Creative role is known as 'Purusha' i.e. 'Karataa Purakha'. In Rig-Veda (10.90.2) there is one composition on the subject ' 'Purusha Sookta'. In GGS - 663 ' 7 The Absolute has been described as having 1000 eyes etc, which is very much like as described in Purusha Sookta. The process of creation as described in GGS ' 1035 is very much like that described in Naasadeeya Sookta of Rig-Veda
83. Japuji ' 1-7,1-8
84. Ajuni is the Punjabee version of 'Ayoni' which means not created from a yoni ' source of creation- therefore without a cause (Maand.Upani 6). Kathopani. -1.2.18. Ishopani. 8; Br. Upani. 4.4.25;
85. GGS- 1035 ' 7.
86. Br. Upani. 4.4.25;
87. Japuji - 1-4, 64-10
88. GGS ' 274 ' 16 & 17
89. Japuji ' 67-5; GGS ' 1034 ' 18; N.B.S.2; Geetaa 12- 2 to 7.
90. Japuji ' 57-17, 84-12
91. Japuji ' 83-5&8
92. Japuji ' 67-19; N.B.S. 38
93. Japuji ' 2-3
94. GGS 837-16
95. Japuji ' 2- 10 &13, 16 to19, 3-1 to5; N.B.S. 19.
96. Japuji ' 85-3; GGS ' 1361 ' 18&19 N.B.S. 82
97. GGS ' 1035 -4, 1361 -1; GGS ' 1382 -10&14 (Sheikh Fareed); N.B.S. 19
98. PYS, Samaadhi Paada ' 37.
99. Japuji ' 28-11 to 12, 46-4 to 7, 67-6
100. Japuji ' 68-14
101. Japuji-1-5
102. Mundaka Upani.3.2.2.
103. Kathopani -2.3.14
104. Japuji ' 27-19, 28-7, 57-18; Kathopani ' 2.3.14 & 15; Mundaka Upani. -3.2.5
105. Japuji-2-18, 29-5, 29-6, 68-8, 92-14; Naarada Bhakti Sootra (N.B.S.) 4; Mundaka 3.2.5; Kathopani. 2.3.14 &15; Bri.Upani. 2.4.12;
106. Japuji ' 31-17; Kathopani ' 1.2.20; 1.2.23; Mundaka Upani. ' 3.1.10; 3.2.3; Tejabindu Upani. ' 6. Geetaa 18 ' 57&58
107. Japuji ' 27-3, 60-16; Ishopani 3
108. Japuji ' 50-7, 58-7, 74-10, GGS ' 983-12, 1021-13; N.B.S.65
109. Japuji ' 61-18 &19; GGS ' 1021-14N.B.S. 7; Mundaka Upani.3.2.2; Kathopani. 1.2.19; 2.3.14; Chha Upani. 3.14.1; Geetaa 3-38&39;
110. Japuji ' 29-11, 29-16, 32-1, 39-1, 61-5; Geetaa 16 ' 13 to 18
111. Japuji ' 29-10, 39-1, GGS ' 1427 -13;
112. Japuji ' 4-16; 16-2
113. Japuji ' 87-12 to 15
114. Japuji ' 27-17, 57-17
115. Japuji ' 84 -11&12
116. Japuji ' 92-5; Kathopani 1.3.14, 2.2.15
117. Japuji ' 3-10.; GGS ' 1361 -4; Mundaka 3.2.5; Geetaa 4 ' 9&10;
118. GGS -273 ' 11 to 19, 274 - 1 to 3; 1427 -4 to 10; Tai Upani. 2.1.1; Mundaka Upani.' 3.2.9.
119. GGS ' 1021 ' 14;
120. Japuji ' 68-7&8
121. Geeta 2- 47,49&51; 3 ' 15; 5 ' 8&9; 9 ' 27&28; 12 ' 12;
122. GGS ' 116 ' 3, Ishopani ' 6&7; Geetaa ' chapter 2 - 38, 48, 56, 64,
123. Japuji ' 83-2; Bhaj Govindam 9 (Aadi Shankara)
124. Japuji ' 92-14; Santa Kabir says, 'Raama is the only wonder, and it is amazing that He cannot be described, but a realized person can 'hear' a continuous 'unplayed symphony.
125. Japuji ' 51-11
126. Japuji ' 68-17
127. Japuji -64-9
128. Aadi Shankara around 800 AD, following Upanishads, never recommended 'rituals' for 'realization'. Kathopani.- 1.2.10.
129. GGS ' 98 -8&9; 102 ' 17 to 19; Kathopani. 1.3.9.
130. GGS ' 1361-6.
131. Only some examples are referred here: Kathopani ' 1.2.15 &16 & 17; Prashnopani ' 5.1,5.2,5.7.; Maitree Upani. 6.3; Tai Upani. 1.8.1.; Chh. Upani. ' 23.3; The entire Maandookya (Maand) Upani.; Manusmriti ' 2-83.
132. GGS -929 -18, 930 -1. GGS ' 1035 ' 9 to 16; Shankara's Commentary on Brahma Sootra ' 1.4.1.
133. Rig-Veda
134. GGS -470 -4 to 9;
135. GGS ' 900 -5;
136. GGS ' 5 - 3 &4, 114-3., 216-7, 408 -8, 904 -15, 16, 791 -4,
137. GGS ' 274 ' 15&1 6.
138. GGS ' 469 -13,14, 15.
130. GGS ' 632 -17, 831 ' 17 & 18' Chhandogya Upani. 6.2.1&2; Ishopani 1, Bridaaranyaka Upani. 3.8.11, 4.4.19; Kathopani 2.1.11; N.B.S. ' 2 to 11, 19,22, 25, 27, 35, 37, 38, 41, 44, 49, 51, 55, 60, 64, 72,
140. It is on record that Aadi Sankara accepted a low caste person as one of his The Gurus.

1. The Guru Granth Sahib translation (Hindi) Singh Sahib Sant Singh Khalsa
2. Textual sources for The Study of Sikhism W. H. McLeod
3. Sikhism W. H. McLeod, Hew McLeod
4. Historical Dictionary of Sikhism W. H. McLeod
5. The Heritage of Sikhs Harbans Singh
6. Sikh History and Religion in the 20th Century O'Connel, Israel and Oxtoby
7. Introduction to Sikhism Gobind Singh Mansukhani
8. Teach Yourself Sikhism Owen Cole
9. Sikhs; Their Religious Beliefs and Practices W. Owen
10. Shri The Guru Nanakji's Ik Onkaar Swami Swaroopanada
11. Encyclopedia of Sikhism Harbans Singh (Editor)
12. Comparison of the Five Complete Translations of Sri The Guru Granth Sahib (English)
Singh Sahib Dr. Sant Singh Khalsa
13. Vedas, specially. Rig Veda Sri Aurobindo & Various other Commentators
14. Sikh The Guruon kee Vedon main Aasthaa S.C. Sachdev (Vishwa Vivek-10;2001)
15. Naarada Bhakti Sootra Translation Swami Chinmayananda
16. Upanishads ' An Overview Vishwa Mohan Tiwari
(Encyclopaedia of Hinduism)
17. Upanishadas see below

i. Isha
ii. Katha
iii. Mundaka
iv. Maandukya
v. Ken
vi. Prashna
vii. Chhandogya
viii. Brihadaaranyaka
ix. Maitree
x. Taittireeya
xi. Shwetaashwatara

Adi Shankara,
Shri Aurobindo,
S. Radhakrishnan,
Swami Chinmayananda,
Swami Nikhilananda,
Swami Tejomayananda,
Vachaspati Pandeya,
Srimad Baldev Bhasysam,
S.C. Goswami,
Swami Akhandanand,
Shayam N. Shukla,
V.R. Date,
S.A. Sarma,
Eknath Eswaran

18. Shrimad Bhagwad Geetaa Adi Shankara
19. Shrimad Bhagwad Geetaa H.H. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
20. Shrimad Bhagwad Geetaa Swami Chinmayanada
21. Shrimad Bhagwad Geetaa Swami Ramsukh Das
22. The Path of Devotion ''....Kamat's Potpourri;
23. Hindu Mysticism''... Frame;
24. Basava Journals ' Dec.2000, Mar. &Jun.2001....Various Authors
25. Nanak Bani ''
26. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali ''.
27. Kashmir in Historic Outline .............................. Subhash Kak


Adwaita: Non 'dual concept of Supreme One. The matter is manifestation of the Supreme Spirit. All this is That. One can unite with Him. The individual soul 'the Aatman- and Brahman are the same.

Bhakti: Unrestrained devotion to Supreme One. There are 11 well known types of Bhakti.

Bliss (Aananda): A state of happiness or joy that is independent of the material state of the person, and dependent on his being in transcendent state of consciousness. Bliss is Brahman.

Brahman: The Supreme One, the Truth, Ik'onkaara, Sat-Naama, Parabrahma, Pure Existence, Pure Bliss, Pure Consciousness. He is formless, transcendent and immanent. Raama, Krishna, Gobinda etc are also Brahman.

Casteism: In the traditional system, (about 5000 years old) of organization of the society, there are four main divisions:

Braahmana: priest and learned in scriptures, whose duty is to guide the society.
Khsatriya: warriors whose duty it is to rule, and also to protect the society.
Vaishya: Traders and producers.
Shoodra: Service class.

These divisions were not inherited by birth to begin with, but later on when Hindu society became weak, they became so. In ancient times, that was a workable organization based on one's capability to perform, hence it depended on one's ability, and not on birth. In any case now in the age of democracy it is outdated.

Dwaita: Dualism: The Spirit and matter are two totally distinct entities The belief that there is God and the rest of the creation. God gives grace and He is merciful, but we cannot unite with Him.

The Guru: The Guru is Supreme One or a person who has realized Him.

Jnaana Yoga: Path of realization of Self through 'knowledge'. As per non-dual philosophy, we are Him, but we do not know and wrongly identify with mind, body and intellect complex. To know the Reality we obtain the necessary knowledge from a The Guru and scriptures.

KarmaYoga: Path of realization through works or actions. Aim is to achieve a state of mind where we perform all actions without desires ' 'nikshkaam karma'.
Mantra: Is a phrase or a word with spiritual power; a hymn in praise of the Supreme One.

Moksha: Liberation from causal cycle of birth and death. As per Hindu system of thought a man is born again and again depending on his actions.

Niraakaar: The Supreme One is without any form, and is not subject to
(Nirguna) laws of Karmas. He is beyond the reach of mind, intellect and senses.

Saakaar(Saguna): The supreme One has a form, a personalized God who rescues His devotees, and restores justice and virtue.

Santa (Saint): A highly devoted person who has realized his Self or is very close to it; and is recognized as such by public. The English word Saint is slightly different from the concept of Santa. Saint is one of God's chosen or one who is officially recognized esp. through canonization as preeminent for holiness.

Shruti: Those ancient scriptures from India that contain the most revered knowledge of spiritual thoughts; e.g. Vedas esp. Upanishads.

Smriti: Those ancient scriptures from India that contain rules for socio-religious life in Ancient India. e.g. Manusmriti.
Tureeya: The fourth state of consciousness also known as transcendent state. Waking, dreaming and deep sleep are the other three states, which are the normal states of consciousness.

Upanishads : These are the final portions of Vedas constituting the highest spiritual experiences and knowledge, amounting to eternal truths.

Vedas: There are four Vedas: Rig, Saama, Yajur and Athatwa. Rig Veda is considered to be the oldest literature known.

Yoga: Union with Supreme One or the Path to attain that. There are four Paths viz. Jnaana, Karma, Bhakti and Paatanjali's Ashtaanga Yoga.


More by :  Vishwa Mohan Tiwari, AVM (Retd)

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