AI Quiz1...What is Knowledge?


Q1. List  the major AI technologies

(i)               Robotics

(ii)             Multimedia Recognition systems

(iii)           Expert Systems

(iv)           Gaming

(v)             Virtual Playmate

(vi)           Virtual Assistant (Siri, Google Now)

(vii)         Automated Vehicles

(viii)       Natural Language Processing


Q2. What do you understand by learning?       

Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge and storing it for future use. Storing knowledge can help in making use of it when a similar situation in problem solving arises later.

Knowledge based systems are dependent on learning. They interact with the environment to learn and acquire knowledge fed into them by human experts. Learning involves using existing knowledge in problem solving and gaining newer insights while doing so.

Q3. Explain briefly: Reasoning under Uncertainty

The capability of using existing knowledge to make an inference when more than one possible outcome is possible e.g. ,thinking of taking a left or a right turn while driving when suddenly a dog appears on the road

Q4. What are the skills needed to make a good Knowledge Based System?

Following are some of the skills

(i)               Good knowledge acquisition methods/devices

(ii)             Ability to represent knowledge such that utility is served. Raw data and facts need to be structured and organized effectively so that inferences and retrieval can take place in an easy manner

(iii)           Building functions to create line-of-reasoning

(iv)           Collate knowledge from multiple human experts to incorporate domain knowledge in knowledge base

(v)             Adaptive learning – As newer knowledge emerges, older body may require a re-look and reorientation to fit with the latest knowledge

(vi)           Good inference engines and rules, good reasoning…

Q5. Explain backward chaining with an example

In backward chaining we go backwards from goal to generate facts or rules which can lead us to achieve that particular goal. For example, in the case of GPS, we enter our destination (goal) and the GPS system finds out the best route (facts or rules) so that the given destination can be reached.

 What is Knowledge?
Knowledge is an application of a combination of instincts, ideas, rules, procedures and information to guide the actions and decisions of a problem solver within a particular problem context. In this sense, knowledge is an interpretation made by the mind [2].

Knowledge is an asset that exists in intelligent beings accrued over the years that help perform or solve a complex task. It may constitute a set of patterns and correlations/associations among data/events that facilitate deft problem solving. Knowledge may be acquired over years through education, peer and self learning, attending conferences and workshops and Intelligent Analysis of prevailing facts and literature.

Knowledge based problem solving would require intelligent heuristic based methods besides adequate command over domain area. Capability to make good decisions under uncertain situations would be needed. Adaptive learning ability is essential with the dynamic nature of knowledge seen in recent times.

Let us look at this hypothetical situation. Say the Indian Govt. decides to elevate the standard of Indian football to International class. As a preliminary exercise, it selects the best thirty players of the country. Pele, the great footballer, is recruited as an adviser/coach to assess the capability of the selected players. To determine whether Indian footballers can compete at the highest level of International football, Pele would need his vast knowledge – his experiences from myriad spheres of having played brilliant International soccer, the techniques and skills needed to make the cut, the need of physical attributes like physique and stamina for the players. He can arrive at a conclusion only after that.

Finally, an overall picture of knowledge cannot be complete without also knowing the meaning of closely related concepts such as understanding, learning, thinking, remembering and reasoning [1].


1.     Dan W. Patterson, Introduction to AI and Expert Systems, PHI, ISBN-978-81-203-0777-3

2.    George M. Marakas, Decision Support Systems in the 21st Century, PHI ISBN-978-81-203-2376-6

(Dated 10th Sept, 2017)

More By  :  Subhajit Ghosh

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