Knowledge is an application of a combination of instincts, ideas, rules, procedures and information to guide the actions and decisions of a problem solver within a particular problem context. In this sense, knowledge is an interpretation made by the mind .
Knowledge is an asset that exists in intelligent beings accrued over the years that help perform or solve a complex task. It may constitute a set of patterns and correlations/associations among data/events that facilitate deft problem solving. Knowledge may be acquired over years through education, peer and self learning, attending conferences and workshops and Intelligent Analysis of prevailing facts and literature.
Knowledge based problem solving would require intelligent heuristic based methods besides adequate command over domain area. Capability to make good decisions under uncertain situations would be needed. Adaptive learning ability is essential with the dynamic nature of knowledge seen in recent times.
Let us look at this hypothetical situation. Say the Indian Govt. decides to elevate the standard of Indian football to International class. As a preliminary exercise, it selects the best thirty players of the country. Pele, the great footballer, is recruited as an adviser/coach to assess the capability of the selected players. To determine whether Indian footballers can compete at the highest level of International football, Pele would need his vast knowledge – his experiences from myriad spheres of having played brilliant International soccer, the techniques and skills needed to make the cut, the need of physical attributes like physique and stamina for the players. He can arrive at a conclusion only after that.
Finally, an overall picture of knowledge cannot be complete without also knowing the meaning of closely related concepts such as understanding, learning, thinking, remembering and reasoning .
1. Dan W. Patterson, Introduction to AI and Expert Systems, PHI, ISBN-978-81-203-0777-3
2. George M. Marakas, Decision Support Systems in the 21st Century, PHI ISBN-978-81-203-2376-6
(Dated 10th Sept, 2017)