Concept of Abhava – Pratinidhi Dravyas by Dr. Sayali Tupe SignUp
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Ayurveda Share This Page
Concept of Abhava – Pratinidhi Dravyas
by Dr. Sayali Tupe Bookmark and Share
 

The concept of pratinidhi dravyas is need of todays pharmaceutical industry. Pratinidhi drug is substitute drug in absence of an original drug (abhav dravya). In Bhavprakash list of pratinidhi dravya is given in mishra varga prakaran but in Yog ratnakar abhav varga is mentioned separately. Substitution is based on Ayurvedaic principles that both the drugs (abhav and pratinidhi) should posses similar guna and therapeutic activities.

The concept of pratinidhi dravya overcomes the problem of unavailability of some drugs, which are used in medicinal formulations. In Ayurveda, medicines are prepared by using plants, minerals, some animal products, metals and gems. Majority of medicines are prepared by using medicinal plants but now a day medicinal plants which are required for herbal industry facing shortage due to deforestation , loss on habitat , over exploitation , extinction of rare plants , indiscriminate harvesting impairing the availability of raw drugs . In case of precious stones, gems they are also not easily available and they are too expensive. So to overcome these problem substitutions of these gems (diamond) and metals (gold) are available. Substitutes are intentionally selected and utilize rationally to achieve the desired effect. By using substitutes in medicinal formulation we get quality herbal formulations with economic feasibility.
 
The list of pratinidhi dravyas is given below:

Minerals & Metals

Abhav dravya Pratinidhi dravya
1 Vajra ( diamond) Vaikrant
2 Suvarna Suvarnamakshik
3 Suvarnamakshik satva Suvarna bhasma
4 Vimalmakshik satva Roupya bhasma
5 Moti Mukta shukti
6 Abhrak satva Kanta louha
7 Kanta louha Tikshna louha
8 Roupya Roupya makshik
9 Suvarna makshik Suvarna gairik
10 Suvarna bhasma / roupya bhasma Kanta louha bhasma
11 Vaidurya aadi ratna Mouktik bhasma
12 Parad bhasma Rasa sindur
13 Rasa sindur Shuddha hingul
14 Manikya bhasma Roupya bhasma
15 Neelam bhasma Suvarna bhasma
16 Panna bhasma Praval bhasma
17 Pukhraj bhasma Abhrak bhasma
18 Vaidurya bhasma Yashad bhasma / shukti bhasma / guduchi satva

Vanaspati Dravya

1 Meda Yashti
2 Mahameda Vidari
3 Jivak Ashwagandha
4 Hrishabhak Bala
5 Kakoli Shatavari
6 Ksheerkakoli Varahkanda
7 White chandana Red chandana
8 Chitrak Danti
9 Dhanvayas Duralabha
10 Tagar Kushta
11 Murva Jhingini
12 Ahimsra Mankanda
13 Lakshmana Neelkanthi (mayurshikha)
14 Bakul Rakta kumud
15 Utpal Pankaj
16 Jati pushpa Lavang
17 Arka payas (dugdha) Arkapatra swaras
18 Pushkar Kushta
19 Langali Kushta
20 Sthouneya Kushta
21 Chavika Pippali mula
22 Gaja pippali Pippali mula
23 Rasanjan Darvi
24 Talispatra Swarntali
25 Bharangi Talispatra / kantakari mula
26 Madhuyashti Dhataki
27 Amlavetasa Chukra
28 Draksha Kashmari(gambhari)
29 Kashmari phala Jatipushpa
30 Kankola Sugandhi musta
31 Kumkum Kusumbh
32 Shweta chandan Karpur
33 Karpur Rakta chandan
34 Ativisha Musta
35 Shiva(haritaki ) Shiva (amalaki)
36 Nagkeshar Padmakesha
37 Bhallatak Chitrak
38 Guduchi satva Guduchi rasa
39 Daruharidra Haridra
40 Saurashtra mruttika Spahtika (alum)
41 panch lavana Saindhav lavana 
42 Nakhi lavang phool
43 Kasturi Kankol
44 Jatipushpa Chameli pushpa /chameli patra
45 Musta and ativisha Haritaki
46 Haritaki Karkat shrungi
47 Nirgundi Tulsi
48 Tulsi Nirgundi
49 Shweta punarnava Rakta punarnava
50 Rasna Kulanjan
51 Ardrak Sunthi
52 Atis Nagarmotha
53 Dadim Vrukshamla
54 Afim Khurasani ajvayan
55 Amra haridra Bakuchi
56 Indrayav Kutaj sal / jayphal
57 Kanji Nimbu rasa
58 Bramhii Mandukparnii
59 Panch kshar Apamarg kshaar
60 Gopi chandan Fitkari ( alum )
61 Aja mutra Gomutra
62 Goghrita Aja ghrita
63 Godugdha Aja dugdha

Ashtavarga Dravya

1 Meda , Mahameda Vari ( shatavari)
2 Jivak , Hrishbhak Vidari
3 Kakoli , Ksheerkakoli Ashwagandha
4 Rudhhi , Vridhhi Varahi kanda

Abhav Dravya For Aahariya Dravya

1 Madhu Puran guda
2 Mishri / sita Shweta khanda
3 Dugdha Mudga yusha / masura yusha

The most important criteria of pratinidhi dravya seems to be similar in indications and their therapeutical activities. To select a proper substitute, one has not only seek overall similarities of guna (rasapanchak) but also test its therapeutic efficacy clinically.  According to Ayurveda sar sangraha, the formulations contains one main drug and others supportive drugs. The formulation cannot be formed without the main drug hence, main drug cannot be replaced by any other drug.  So list of abhav dravya is given for supportive drugs in the formulation. Some examples of main drugs and supportive drugs in the formulation are given below:

Sr.No Formulation Main Drug Supportive Drugs
1 Draksharishta Draksha Lavang, Supari, Kushta Nagkeshar
2 Shankha Vati Shankha Saindhav, Sunthi , Hingu
3 Kasturi Bhairav Rasa Kasturi Hingula, Vatsnabha

So as per the guidelines, pratinidhi dravya for draksha, shankha and kasturi should not used for the preparation of main drug formulation.

This article is published under the guidence of HOD Vd. Kalyani Jadhav and Guide Vd.Kavita S Deshmukh. Ssam Hadapsar Pune 28.

9-Nov-2014
More by :  Dr. Sayali Tupe
 
Views: 2491
 
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