Mukta and Mukta Bhasma by Dr. Bhagyashri Suryawanshi SignUp
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Mukta and Mukta Bhasma
by Dr. Bhagyashri Suryawanshi Bookmark and Share
 

Introduction

All the texts of Rasashastra and Jyotishshastra had counted mukta (pearl) among chief 9 Ratnas (gem), which are having their relations with specific Grahas. Mukta has been upheld as Chandragraha preeti Ratna in Astrology (gem for moon). People around the world such as Brazilians, South Africans, Indians, Chinese and Japanese are using Mukta as an ornamental gem form ancient time. It has the place of treasure similar to that of Gold and has a higher significance in the field of trade and in medicine.

Pearls are calcareous concretions formed as protection against the foreign objects, either particles or minute parasites, which penetrate inside between the mantle and the shell of the mollusk. A fold of soft tissue envelops the foreign particles and deposits layer after layer of nacre on it to form a pearl. Wild pearl may occur in spherical or irregular shapes in free state, or may be found attached to the shell as ‘demi’ or ‘blister’ pearls to be cut out from the shells. They are obtained from pearl oysters which belongs to single genus, Pinctada Roding (Pteriidae).

Derivation: The term Mukta is derived from Dhatu,Much” and “kta pratyaya” which means, Loosened, Liberated, Delivered, Released, Discharged. The Nirukti of Mukta is, “Muchyate shukti samputa garbhaaditi Mukta.” i.e, the one which is released from Pearl oyster shell.

Modern Review of Mukta

Class: Mollusca
Latin Name: Pinctada margaritifera.

Pearl is an organic gem. It is obtained from the Pearl shell or oyster found in the sea. The Pearl shell belongs to the Molluscan class of aquatic creature. In several European languages, the word 'pearl' is synonymous with 'bead'. Because of the natural occurrence of pearl in the form of bead, it might have been named so.

Genesis of Pearl:

Pearls are the calcareous concretions formed as protection against the irritation caused by foreign objects, either sand or minute parasites which have lodged inside the shell, between the mantle and the shell of the animal. The common parasite found in Indian Pearl oysters is larval cyst of the tapeworm Tentacularia unionifactor. The creature secretes a substance called caucheolin as a natural defense when an irritant foreign body enters the shells. The secretion envelops the foreign body by depositing layer by layer of nacre on it and gets solidified. Further many more layers are formed

of these secretions, from which the Pearl is finally formed. There are two types of secretions, of which the first is translucent, which is chemically CaCO3. The other type of secretion is more transparent, which is chemically Canchialian – C30H48N2O2. Almost any shelled mollusk can, by natural processes, produce some kind of "pearl" when an irritating microscopic object becomes trapped within the mollusk's mantle folds, but virtually none of these pearls are valued as gemstones.

Natural pearls:

A "natural pearl" is one that formed without any human intervention at all, in the wild, and is very rare. Natural pearls are nearly 100% calcium carbonate and conchiolin. It is thought that natural pearls form under a set of accidental conditions when a microscopic intruder or parasite enters a bivalve mollusk, and settles inside the shell. The mollusk, being irritated by the intruder, secretes the calcium carbonate and conchiolin to cover the irritant. This secretion process is repeated many times, thus producing a pearl. Natural pearls come in many shapes, with perfectly round ones being comparatively rare. A "cultured pearl", on the other hand, is one that has been formed on a pearl farm. The great majority of pearls sold now a days in the market are cultured pearls.

The Cultural Pearls are produced artificially in large fisheries, many in the shallow waters of the shores of Japan and China. The oyster shells are opened and a small piece of foreign body is introduced inside the shells and closed again and re-introduced in water. The so called cultural pearls cannot be differentiated easily from the natural Pearls. Cultured pearls can be distinguished from natural pearls by X-ray examination. Nucleated cultured pearls are often 'pre-formed' as they tend to follow the shape of the implanted shell bead nucleus. Once the pre-formed beads are inserted into the oyster, it secretes a few layers of nacre around the outside surface of the implant before it is removed after six months or more.

Chemical composition of Pearl:
Pearls are composed of many tiny overlapping plates of nacreous material. The nacre consists of prismatic pseudohexagonal aragonite crystals (a polymorph of calcium carbonate) held together by conchiolin (C3H18N9O11 nH2O.), a horny scleroprotein of the keratin type. Pearls contain 90 – 92% of Calcium carbonate (as aragonite), 4-6% of organic matter and 2-4% of water; their relative proportion varies with the species, the position of the Pearl in the shell and other factors.
Specific gravity –2.65 to 2.84.
Hardness -- 3.5 to 4

Occurrence:
Gulf countries, Srilanka, Japan, China, Mexico, Australia and in India gulf of Mannar.

Mukta Pariksha (tests)
The test for selecting Jatya Mukta is by immersing the Mukta in a vessel containing Gomutra along with Lavana, Ksharas and rubbing with husk. If the Mukta remains same in appearance, then it is considered as the best.1

Rasendra Sampradaya says, the Mukta which breaks with difficulty on biting is considered as the best.

Ayurveda Prakasha and Rasapaddati mention about Mukta Pareeksha Mandali, which must contain the experts to test the quality of Mukta and the Jatya Mukta is alone weighed by the Tula yantra.2,3

When the Prakrita (standerd) or Samvardita Mukta is dipped in Sulphuric acid, it losses it’s shining, but Kritrima Mukta (artificial) made of glass, china clay, plastic etc do not change in its appearance.4

Shodhana of Mukta:5-13
A particular quantity of Mukta is tied as a Pottali (pouch of cotton cloth) with three folded cloth and immersed in a particular liquid (mild acidic medium like diluted juice of nimbuk) taken in the Dola yantra and boiled for one yama (3hrs).

Different methods of shodhana of Mukta

Sl No Media and Time Period Method                            
1. Jayanti Swarasa
1     yama (3 hours)
Dola yantra swedana.
2. Agastya Swarasa        1 yama Dola yantra  swedana
3. Sudhodaka                 1 yama Dola yantra swedana
4. Kulattha kwatha         1 yama Dola yantra swedana
5. Amla, Kshara             1 yama Dola yantra swedana
6. Gomutra Lavana and
nimbu    swarasa        1 yama
Dola yantra swedana
7. Amla, Kanji, Gomutra, nimbu swarasa
and Milk.                 
  1 yama
Dola yantra  swedana           

Marana of Mukta (preparation of Mukta Bhasma):
The Shodhita Mukta is powdered and triturated with a particular dravya(liquid medium) as mentioned in the texts. The Subhavitha material is made into Chakrikas  and dried under shade, then placed into Sharava samputa  and given Puta samskara.

Table showing different methods of Marana of Mukta

S.No                   Maraka Dravyas Media for Bhavana
1 Manashila,Gan haka and Haratala.14-20 Lakucha   Swarasa(In the abhava of lakucha nimbu can be used). 8 putas (Gajaputas)
2           -- Kanji 21,22 Laghu Puta.
3           -- Godugdha 23,24,25 3 Laghu Puta
4.           -- Taruni Parisruta Jala 26,27 3 Laghu Puta
5.           -- Kumari, Tandula jala 28,29 7 Nirvapas
6.           -- Kumari rasa30 1 Varaha Puta
7 Gandhaka, Parada Godugha.31 Gaja Puta
8.            -- First with Kumari Swarasa.
After 1st Puta, bhavana with
Dugdha32
Gobaragni for first Puta and for 2nd Puta Aranyakanda.

Mukta Pishti

Rasendra Sambhava mentions, the prepared Mukta bhasma has to be triturated with Gulab jala for 3 times, by this method, uttama Pishti will be obtained.33

Mukta is taken in a khalva and given bhavana with Gulab jala for 21 days. By this Uttama, Soumya Mukta Pisti is obtained.34

Suddha Mukta made into fine powder and seived with a cloth. This fine powder is triturated in Gulab jala for 3 days. This yeilds the Mukta Pisti.35

Mukta Guna Karma:36
Mukta Pisti is useful in Netraroga, Dhatukshaya, Rajayakshma, Urakshata, Hrudaya Dourbalya, Kasa, Shwasa, Jeernajwara, Hikka, Bhrama, Raktapitta, Mastishka Dourbalya, Netradaha, Shirodaha, Pittavruddhi, Paridaha, Prameha, Mootrakrucchra, Amlapitta, Nidranasha etc.

Matra of Mukta:37
Analysing the Roga, Rogi bala, Avastha and also the Kala etc, the Bhasma is administered in the Dose of 1/4 Ratti to 2 Ratti Pramana (30 mg to 250 mg).
The Matra of Mukta Pishti is ½ Ratti to 1 Ratti (62.5mg-125mg) 38

Anupana:39
Ksheera, Ushnajala, Ghrita, Navaneeta, Madhu.

Bibliography
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2. Madhava, Ayurveda prakasha, edited by Gulrajsharma mishra, 3rd edn. Varanasi, Chaukhamba bharati academy, 1999, chapter 5, shloka 97, 463 pp.
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11. Bhudeb Mookerjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi or Ocean of Indian Chemistry, Medicine and Alchemy, compiled in Sanskrit text with English translation, 4th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 2004, Volume III, chapter4, 215 pp.
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12. Sri Gopal Krishna, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Vd.Satyartha prakasha Ed, Varanasi, Krishnadas academy 1994, 1st chapter, sloka 372, 95 pp.
13. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kasinatha Shastri, 11th edn, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasi Das, 1979, Taranga 23, Shloka 67, 612pp.
14.Somadeva, Rasendra chudamani, commentary by sidhinanadan mishra, Varanasi, Chaukhamba orientalia, 2004, 12th chapter, sloka 56, 212 pp.
15. Acharya Yashodhara, Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, edited by Siddinandana Mishra, 1stedn.,Varanasi, Chaukhamba orientalia, 1998, Chapter 7, Sloka 54, 143pp.
16. Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya, Kaviraj Ambikadatta Shastry Ed, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Amarabharati Prakashana, 1994, 4th chapter, sloka 62, 69pp.
17. Yoga Ratnakata, commented by Shree Lakshmipati Shtri, edited by Bhrahma Shankara Shastri, , 7th edn,Varanasi, Chowkambha Samskrita Samsthana, 2002, Shesha Ratna Shodhana Maranani, Shloka 2, 161pp
18. Madhava, Ayurveda prakasha, edited by Gulrajsharma mishra, 3rdedn. Varanasi, Chaukhamba bharati academy, 1999, chapter 5/154, 175 pp.
19. Acharya Shalinath, Rasa Manjari, edited by Prof S. N. Mishra, Siddhiprada Hindi commentary, 2nd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha orientalia, 2003 chapter 3, shloka 100,45pp.
20. Bhudeb Mookerjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi or Ocean of Indian Chemistry, Medicine and Alchemy, compiled in Sanskrit text with English translation, 4th edn, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 2004, Volume III chapter 4, 250pp
21. Acharya Dundukanatha, Rasendra Chintamani, translated by Siddinandan Mishra, 1st Edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba orientalia, 2000, 7th chapter, shloka 72, 99pp
22. Sri Gopal Krishna, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Vd.Satyartha prakasha Ed, Varanasi, Krishnadas academy 1994, 1st chapter, 360 sloka, 92pp.
23. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kasinatha Shastri, 11th edn, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasi Das, 1979, Taranga 23, Shloka 70, 613pp.
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25. Shree Pandit Radhakrishna Parashara, Ratna vijnana, 2nd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, 1998, 100pp
26. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kasinatha Shastri, 11th edn, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasi Das, 1979, Taranga 23, Shloka 71, 613pp.
27. Shree Pandit Radhakrishna Parashara, Ratna vijnana, 2nd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, 1998, 100pp
28. Bhudeb Mookerjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi or Ocean of Indian Chemistry, Medicine and Alchemy, compiled in Sanskrit text with English translation, 4th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 2004, Volume III chapter 4, 250
29. Dattarama choubey, Brahat Rasaraja Sundara, Varanasi, Choukhamba orientalia, 3rd edition, 2000, 201 pp.
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32. Rasatantra sara va sidda prayoga sangraha, volume-1, edited by Krishna Gopalaji kaleda, Krishna gopala Ayurveda bhavana, 2006, 183 pp.
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36. Ibid, 183 pp.
37. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kasinatha Shastri, 11th edn, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasi Das, 1979, Taranga 23, Shloka 75, 615pp.
38.Rasatantra sara sidda prayoga sangraha, kaleda, Krishna gopala Ayurveda bhavana, 2003, 183pp
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6-Mar-2014
More by :  Dr. Bhagyashri Suryawanshi
 
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